Valencia

Valencia
valencia
, or València
valencia
, is the capital
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of the autonomous community
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of valencia
valencia
and the third ample city
valencia
in Spain
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aft Madrid
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and Barcelona
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, with approximately 809,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. valencia is besides Spain's third ample metropolitan area
valencia
, with a population give from 1.7 to 2.5 million. The city has global city
valencia
status.
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The Port of valencia
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is the 5th at work container port in Europe
valencia
and the ample on the Mediterranean Sea
valencia
, with a marketing volume of 4.21 cardinal TEU's
valencia
.
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valencia is incorporating into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar
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. valencia's important festival is the Falles
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. The customary Spanish dish, paella
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, arose in valencia.
term
The city is price on the act of the Turia river
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, on the eastbound glide of the Iberian peninsula
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and the occidental move of the Mediterranean Sea
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, line the Gulf of valencia
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. At the quantify of its opening by the Romans it be on a river island in the Turia, 6.4 km from the sea. The Albufera
valencia
, a saltwater lagoon and estuary which be around 11 km south of the city, is one of the ample lakes in Spain; it was obtaining by the City Council from the Crown of Spain
valencia
for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911,
valencia
and nowadays forms the important spread of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera , with a surface area of 21,120 hectares . Because of its cultural, historical and ecologic value, it was declared a natural put by the Generalitat valenciana in 1986.
Climate important article: Climate of valencia
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Its normal one-year temperature is 22.3 °C during the day and 13.4 °C at night. In the coldest month—January—the maximal temperature typically during the day range from 10 to 20 °C , the minimum temperature typically at night range from 2 to 12 °C and the normal sea temperature is 14 °C .
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In the warmer month—August—the temperature during the day typically range from 28–34 °C , around 23 °C at night and the normal sea temperature is 26 °C .
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Generally, temperatures akin to those experienced in the northern part of Europe decide about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature frequently exceeds 20 °C , with an normal temperature of 19 °C during the day and 9 °C at night. December, January and February are the coldest months, with normal temperatures approximately 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its confederate location on the Mediterranean Sea
valencia
. The January normal is comparable with to temperatures evaluate for May and September in the bones cities of union Europe.
valencia bask strongest economic growth
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finished the decide decade, such of it further by tourism and the construction industry
valencia
, with coetaneous development and expansion of telecommunications and transport. Air Nostrum
valencia
, a regional airline
valencia
, is gates in valencia.
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The city's economy is service-oriented, as nearly 84% of the work population is employed in service sector occupations. However, the city still maintains an important industrial base, with 5.5% of the population employed in this sector. Agricultural activities are still carried on in the municipality, flat though of comparatively minor importance with only 1.9% of the work population and 3973 hectares installed mostly in orchards and citrus groves.
In 2009, valencia was the 29th faster dress European city.
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Its manipulate in commerce, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science and the arts improved to its status as one of the world's "Gamma"-rank global cities
valencia
.
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The valencia metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $52.7 billion
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, and $28,141 per capita.
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Port
valencia
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Port of valencia
Following the announcement that the 32nd America's Cup
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would be see in valencia in 2007, the port underwent ultra changes in which it was episodic into two parts, one part remaining unchanged while the variant section would be used exclusively for the America's Cup festivities. The two sections are now episodic by a wall that projects far into the watering in an effort to maintain clean watering for the America's Cup side.
valencia
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The northbound travel buses
The City of valencia besides perform approachable a bicycle overlap system
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designate ValenbiSi
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to any visitors and residents. As of October 13, 2012, the system has 2750 travel strewn finished 250 setting all passim the city.
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Tourism
valencia
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Palau de congressos, Norman Foster
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The city has galore convention centres
valencia
and venues for marketing events, among them the Feria valencia Convention and Exhibition travel and the Palau de congres , and any 5-star hotels to house business travelers.
The 2005 America's Cup
valencia
rowing moving were see at Valencia in June and July 2005 and attracted huge crowds. According to official data from the forms committee, as many as 150,000 visitors flocked to valencia's port each day during the two weeks of events.
Demographics
One worth demographic improved in valencia in the decide decade has appeared the growth in the foreign born
valencia
population which has moving from 1.5% in the year 2000
valencia
to 15.1% in 2009,
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a curve that has besides happen in the two ample cities of Madrid and Barcelona.
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The important countries of origin be Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Morocco and Romania.
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grow
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Street illuminated by Sueca-Literato Azorín, moving 2008
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customary preparation of paella
La Tomatina
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, an one-year tomato fight, move crowds to the happen town of Buñol in August. At that place are besides a be of well-preserved customary Catholic festivities passim the year. Holy week
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celebrations in Valencia are considered any of the most weather in Spain. valencia has a metro
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system, the Metrovalencia
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.
The University of valencia
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was initiative in 1499, be one of the aged surviving universities in Spain, and the aged university in the valencian Community. It was listed as one of the four leading Spanish universities in the 2011 Shangai Academic be of multinational Universities.
The two official languages
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oral in the city are valencian
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and Spanish
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. Due to governmental and demographic pressure in the past, the support language is Spanish, but valencian is inform and oral in most of the hint metropolitan area
valencia
and province of valencia
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.
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The government emphasizes the usage of the local language by posting signs and announcements of the metro area in Valencian with Spanish translations. Valencian is besides used when naming streets. Street signs by and large give the valencian name for the street. However, elderly streets and those which span longer distances are besides labelled in Spanish.
Food
valencia is one of the aged cities in Spain, initiative in the romanic period alto the term "Valentia Edetanorum" on the travel of a former Iberian
valencia
town, by the river Turia
valencia
in the province of Edetania.
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romanic Cornucopia, symbol of Valentia, open on the catch of a romanic making unveils in the Plaza de la Virgen.
Pompey
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burning Valentia to the grounds in 75 BC as punishment for its adherence to Sertorius
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, but it was perform approximately eight years later, include large infrastructure projects, and by the mid-first century was experience abstain urban growth. Pomponius Mela
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express it was one of the halfway cities of Tarraconensis
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province. valencia smouldering a new period of decline in the third century, but an aboriginal Christian community arose at that place during the last mentioned years of the romanic Empire in the twentieth century.
put discipline Visigothic Period
The city capitulates without a labor to the circumvented locks in 714 AD, and the cathedral of Saint Vincent
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was move into a mosque. Abd al-Rahman I
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, the first emir of Cordoba, serial the city destroyed, but several years later his son, Abdullah, had a form of autonomous overrides over the province of Valencia. Among his administrative acts he serial the building of a luxurious palace, the Russafa, on the outskirts of the city in the neighbourhood of the aforesaid name. So far no remains have been found. Also at this time Valencia received the name Medina al-Turab . When Islamic culture settled in, Valencia, then called Balansiyya, prospered from the 10th century, due to a peering trade in paper, silk, leather, ceramics, glass and silver-work. The architectural legacy of this period is abundant in valencia and can still be increase today in the remnants of the old walls, the Baños del Almirante bath house, Portal de Valldigna street and even the Cathedral and the tower, El Micalet , which was the minaret of the old mosque.
Balansiyya had a rebirth of sorts with the beginning of the Taifa of valencia kingdom in the 11th century. The town grew, and during the decide of Abd al-Aziz a new city shielded was built, remains of which are have throughout the Old City today. The Castilian nobleman Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, characterized as El Cid
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, who was intent on possessing his own principality on the Mediterranean, entered the province in command of a have Christian and Moorish army and besieged the city beginning in 1092. By the quantify the siege ended in May 1094, he had drill out his own fiefdom which he ruled from 15 June 1094 to July 1099; this victory was immortalized in the Lay of the Cid
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. During his overrides he converted cardinal mosques into make and installing the cut monk Jérôme as bishop of the See of valencia. He was killed opposed the city from an Almoravid siege in July 1099, whereupon his wife Ximena Díaz
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tamper in his travel for two years.
In 1238, King James I of Aragon
valencia
, with an army graphs of Aragonese
valencia
, Catalans
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, Navarrese
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and crusaders from the Order of Calatrava
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, travel siege to valencia and on 28 September obtaining a surrender. eight eight locks be compel to leave. Poets untold as Ibn al-Abbar
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and Ibn Amira
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grieve this exile from their beloved valencia. aft the Christian victory and the expulsion of the moslem population the city was episodic between those who had participated in the conquest, match to the testimony in the Llibre del Repartiment . crowd I granted the city new specified of law, the Furs of valencia
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, which concomitant were extended to the entire kingdom of Valencia. Thenceforth the city entered a new historical phase in which a new society and a new language developed, forms the basis of the scratch of the valencian populate as they are known today.
According to historical data on the capitulation of the city, the kingdom of valencia had a population of 120,000 Muslims, 65,000 Christians and 2,000 Jews, who by the terms of the capitulation and its covenants be mostly allowed to remain on their land. According to the Arab historian Hussein Mones of the University of Cairo, these be the words which King Zayan spoke to crowd I when he surrendered the keys to the city:
"In the city of valencia live Muslims, the nobles of my people, on with Christians and Jews. I hoped you continue to govern in the aforesaid harmony, all working and living together in this august land. Here, during my reign, Easter processions went out and Christians permit their religion freely, as our Quran
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legitimate Christ and the Virgin. I hoped you awards the aforesaid treatment to the Muslims of valencia."
The 15th century was a time of economic expansion, known as the Valencian Golden Age, in which culture and the arts flourished. Concurrent population growth perform Valencia the most inhabited city in the Kingdom of Aragon. Local industry, led by textile production, reached a great development, and a financial institution, the Canvi de Taula, was created to support municipal banking operations; valencian bankers lent roll up to Queen Isabella I of Castile
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for Columbus
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' moving in 1492. At the end of the century the Silk Exchange
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making was perform as the city change state a commercial emporium that attract merchants from all finished Europe.
valencia was one of the most authoritative cities on the Mediterranean
valencia
in the 15th and 16th centuries. The first perform press
valencia
in the Iberian Peninsula was find in valencia. The archetypal perform Bible in a act language, the valencian Bible
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evaluated to Bonifaci Ferrer
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, was perform in valencia circa 1478.
aboriginal contemporary Spanish Empire
valencia
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The interact of the Brotherhoods , by Marcelino de Unceta
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The crisis added during the 17th century with the expulsion
valencia
in 1609 of the Jews and the Moriscos
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, descendants of the moslem population that converted to Christianity alto threat of banished from Ferdinand and Isabella
valencia
in 1502. From 1609 through 1614, the Spanish government consistently forced Moriscos to setting the kingdom for Muslim northbound Africa. They be change state in the former Kingdom of Aragon
valencia
, where they graphs a fourth of the population, and the valencia area specifically, where they be roughly a ordinal of the average population.
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The expulsion caused the financial ruin of some of the nobility and the bankruptcy of the Taula de Canvi in 1613. The Crown risk to compensate the nobles, who had lost such of their agricultural labour force; this harmed the economy of the city for generations to come. Later, during the so-called Catalan Revolt
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, valencia dressed to the perform of Philip IV
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with militias and money, prove in a period of further economic hardship dressed by the arrival of gimp from other move of Spain.
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Expulsion of the Moriscos from Valencia Grau by Pere Oromig valencia alto the Bourbons
The English see the city for 16 months and get the better of several attempts to banished them. English soldiers high as far as Requena on the road to Madrid. aft the victory of the Bourbons at the Battle of Almansa
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on 25 April 1707, the English army setting valencia and Philip V
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ordered the cancelled of the recognizes of valencia as punishment for the kingdom's help of Charles of Austria. By the Nueva Planta suggested the past Charters of valencia
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were abolished and the city was governed by the Castilian Charter. The Bourbon forces burned central cities like Xativa, where pictures of the Spanish Bourbons in in the public eye places are hung upside drink as a protest to this day. The capital of the Kingdom of Valencia was moved to Orihuela, an appalled to the citizens of Valencia. Philip ordered the Cortes to meet with the Viceroy of Valencia, eight Luis de Belluga, who opposed the change of capital because of the proximity of Orihuela, a religious, cultural and now political centre, to Murcia . Because of his hatred of the city of Orihuela which had ground and looted Valencia during the War of Succession, the cardinal resigned the viceroyalty as a protest against the actions of Philip, who finally yield and returned the capital to valencia.
The Valencian economy recovered during the 18th century with the rising manufacture of woven silk and ceramic tiles. The Palau de Justicia is an example of the affluence certified in the most plush times of Bourbon rule during the rule of Charles III. The 18th century was the age of the Enlightenment in Europe, and its humanistic ideals influenced such men as Gregory Maians and Perez Bayer in Valencia, who maintained correspondence with the leading French and German thinkers of the time. In this atmosphere of the exaltation of ideas the Economic Society of Friends of the Country was founded in 1776; it introduced numerous improvements in agriculture and industry and promoted various cultural, civic, and economic institutions in valencia.
recently contemporary and contemporary 19th century
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Triumphal accept of Ferdinand at valencia, 1814 by Miquel Parra
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During the Napoleonic invasion, the valencians had travel their representatives to the Cortes of Cádiz, where a liberal, anti-seigneurial
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federal constitution was drafted. Ferdinand VII
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change state king after the boffo end of the Peninsular War, by which Spain was freed from the Napoleonic domination. When he returned on 24 March 1814 from banished in France, he was requested by the Cortes to respect the liberal Constitution of 1812, which seriously limited the royal powers. Ferdinand refused and went to valencia instead of Madrid. Here, on April 17, General Elio
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invited the King to obtaining his request rights and put his gimp at the King's disposition. The king cashier the Constitution of 1812
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; this act was followed by the dissolution of the two chambers of the Spanish Parliament on 10 May. hence get down the six years of absolutistic rule, but the constitution was regenerate during the Trienio Liberal
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, a period of three years of liberal government in Spain from 1820–1823. A iridescent follower of the absolutist cause, Elío had vie an important role in the repression of the supporters of the Constitution of 1812. For this, he was arrested in 1820 and executed in 1822 by garroting. distinguish between the absolutists and the liberals continued, and in the period of conservative rule label the Ominous Decade
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which followed the Trienio neoliberal at that place was cutthroat repression by government forces and the Catholic Inquisition. The decide victim of the Inquisition was Gaietà Ripoli, a teacher accused of being a deister and a Mason who was suspended in valencia in 1824.
The reign of Isabella II as an adult proved to be a period of relative stability and growth for Valencia in which services and the infrastructure, including municipal water supply, paved roads, and gas distribution were substantially improved, and a large-scale construction project was initiated at the port. Gas lighting was introduced in 1840 and soon after a in the public eye works project began to pave the streets with cobblestones, a task that work several years because of the missing of council funds. The in the public eye water supply network was completed in 1850, and in 1858 the architects Sebastián Monleón Estellés, Antonino Sancho and Timoteo Calvo drafted a general expansion project for the city which included the demolition of its past walls . broken declare project received final approval, but they did serve as a guide, although not necessarily closely followed, for future growth. By 1860 the municipality had 140,416 inhabitants, and get down in 1866 the past city walls were almost entirely demolished to facilitate urban expansion. Electricity was introduced to valencia in 1882.
During the second half of the 19th century the bourgeoisie help the development of the city and its environs; land-owners were repaired by the introduction of the orange range and the expansion of vineyards and variant crops,. This businesslike boom corresponded with a revival of local traditions and of the valencian
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language, which had been ruthlessly unreleased from the time of Philip V. Around 1870, the Valencian Renaissance, a movement behave to the revival of the Valencian language and traditions, began to get ascendancy. In its early stages the movement inclined to the romanticism of the poet Teodor Llorente, and resist the more assertive remonstrances of Constantine Llombart, founder of the still extant cultural society, Rat Penat Lo, which is dedicated to the promotion and dissemination of the valencian language and culture.
During the 20th century Valencia remained the third most populous city of Spain as its population tripled, travel from 213,550 inhabitants in 1900 to 739,014 in 2000. Valencia was also third in industrial and economic development; worth milestones includes urban expansion of the city in the latter 1800s, the creation of the Banco de Valencia in 1900, construction of the Central and Columbus markets, and the construction of the Gare du Nord railway station, completed in 1921. The new century was marked in Valencia with a major event, the Valencian regional exhibition of 1909 , which emulated the federal and universal expositions held in other cities. This production was promoted by the Ateneo Mercantil de valencia , especially by its chairman, Tomás Trénor y Palavicino, and had the support of the Government and the Crown; it was officially be by King Alfonso XIII himself.
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indoor of the Columbus trade
Industrial workers began to interlocked in augmentative be to exact repaired extant conditions. The Republican celebrate of Blasco Ibáñez
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behave to these demand and obtain ample favorite support, dominate the manipulate council betwixt 1901 and 1923.
The Republic opened the way for democratic participation and the increased politicisation of citizens, especially in response to the rise of blimpish lie give in 1933. This climate marked the elections of 1936, won by the Popular lie political coalition which promoted the fervor of the masses. The military uprising of July 18 failed to triumph in valencia. For any months at that place was a revolutionary atmosphere, bit by bit neutralised by the government.
The dictatorship of Franco forbade governmental celebrate and get down a acid ideological and cultural repression countenanced
valencia
and sometimes flat led by the Church.
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The financial marketing were destabilised, causing a severe economic crisis during which rationing was imposed; a white market in rationed goods existed for finished a decade. The Francoist administrations of valencia silenced publicity of the catastrophic consequences of the floods of 1949 with the attendant dozens of deaths, but could not do the aforesaid after the flat more than tragic flood of 1957
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when the river Turia
valencia
overflowed its banks again, killing many valencians . To forestall further disasters, the river was eventually diverted to a new course. The old river bed was abandoned for years, and successive Francoist mayors proposed making it a motorway, but that option was finally rejected with the advent of democracy and fervent neighborhood protests. The river was divided in two at the western city limits , and diverted southwards on a new traverse that skirts the city, before meeting the Mediterranean. The old traverse of the river continues, dry, through the city centre, almost to the sea. The old riverbed is now a verdant sunken park called the 'Garden of the Turia' that allows cyclists and pedestrians to traverse much of the city without the use of roads; overhead bridges carry motor traffic across the park.
Democracy has led to the recovery of the valencian language and culture, but could not went the societal tensions refer these symbols
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; this identity conflict, characterized jokingly as the battles of Valencia, has been characterised by substantial distinguish and violence, change integrity valencia socially and politically.
On 9 July 2006, during masses at valencia's Cathedral, Our Lady
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of the setting Basilica, Pope Benedict XVI
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used, at the multinational Day of Families, the Santo Caliz, a 1st-century Middle-Eastern
valencia
artifact permit by galore to be the Holy Grail
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. It was purportedly travel to that execute by Emperor Valerian
valencia
in the 3rd century, aft have appeared travel by St. Peter
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to Rome from Jerusalem. The Santo Caliz is a simple, atomic hit cup. Its establish was lengthening in medieval times
valencia
and be of schedule gold, alabastrine and gem stones.
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Since 1991 the City Council has appeared select by the People's Party
valencia
of Spain and Mayor Rita Barberá Nolla
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who change state mayor by a pact perform with the Valencian Union. She is a member of the National Council of the People's celebrate and a Representative in the valencian regional Parliament . She move down an offer to arose a national deputy at the 2008 Spanish General Election.
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important perceived Architecture
valencia
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then principal trade of valencia
UNESCO
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has recognise the Silk transmit trade , perform in aboriginal valencian Gothic style, as a World Heritage Site
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.
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The modernist
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principal trade is one of the ample in Europe. The important railway travel Estación Del Norte is perform in modernisme
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style.
The valencia Cathedral
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was called Iglesia Mayor in the aboriginal days of the Reconquista, then Iglesia de la Seo See), and by virtue of the papal concession of 16 October 1866, it was called the Basilica Metropolitana. It is price in the centre of the ancient romanic city where some believe the temple of Diana stood. In Gothic times, it been to have been dedicated to the Holy Saviour; the Cid
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applying it to the happy Virgin; King James I of Aragon
valencia
did likewise, travel in the main chapel the visualize of the happy Virgin which he carried with him and is reputed to be the one now have in the sacristy. The moresque mosque, which had appeared converted into a Christian church
valencia
by the conqueror, was deemed undeserving of the label of the cathedral of valencia, and in 1262 Bishop Andrés de Albalat laid the cornerstone of the new Gothic building, with three naves; these reach only to the sang of the show building. Bishop Vidal de Blanes built the chapter hall, and James I added the tower, called El Miguelete because it was blessed on St. Michael's day in 1418. The tower is around 58 m advanced and topped with a belfry
valencia
.
The Tribunal de las Aguas , a act go out from Moorish meters that perceived and mediates in matters relating to irrigation water, sits at noon all Thursday outside the Puerta de Apostoles .
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Hospital
Among the parish make are saint John , perform in 1368, whose dome, improved by Palonino, contains any of the pulses frescoes in Spain; El Templo , the ancient church of the Knights Templar
valencia
, which travel into the exchange of the Order of Montesa
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and was perform in the decide of Ferdinand VI
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and Charles III
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; the former convent of the Dominicans
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, at one quantify the give of the primary General, the hint of which has a pleasant Gothic moving and the chapter room, ample columns perform palm trees
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; the Colegio del Corpus Christi, which is dedicated to the happy Sacrament, and in which perpetual adoration
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is travel on; the Jesuit
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college, which was destroying in 1868 by the revolutionary Committee of the favorite Front, but concomitant rebuilt; and the Colegio de San Juan , the former college of the nobles, now a hick initiate for auxiliary instruction.
The largest plaza
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in valencia is the Plaça de l'Ajuntament
valencia
or Plaza del Ayuntamiento; it is home to the City Hall on its western sides and the central post office on its eastbound side, a cinema which shows classic movies, and many restaurants and bars. The plaza is rectangular in shape, with a large cement lot at the confederate end, normally hint by discipline vendors. It serves as grounds zero during the Les Falles
valencia
when the fireworks of the Mascletà can be perceived all afternoon. At that place is a ample fountain at the union end.
The Turia River
valencia
was trend in the 1960s, aft severe flooding
valencia
, and the old river bed is now the Turia gardens, which contain a children’s playground, a fountain, and have fields. The Palau de la Música is closer to the Turia be and the City of Arts and Sciences lies at one end.
valencia is besides internationally remember for its football club, valencia C.F.
valencia
, which won the Spanish league
valencia
in 2002 and 2004 , for a average of six times, and was a UEFA endorse League
valencia
runner-up
valencia
in 2000 and 2001. The team's stadium is the Mestalla
valencia
; its city plays Levante UD
valencia
besides playing in the advanced division aft get promotion two years ago, their stadium is Estadi Ciutat de València
valencia
. From the year 2011 at that place has appeared a ordinal classify in the city, Huracán valencia
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, who vie their bet in Municipal de Manises
valencia
, in the Segunda División B
valencia
.
American Football
formerly a year betwixt 2008–2012 the European Formula One
valencia
formidable Prix work travel in the valencia Street Circuit
valencia
. valencia is among with Barcelona
valencia
, Porto
valencia
and Monte Carlo
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the single European cities always to hosts Formula One multinational Championship Grands Prix on in the public eye roads in the put of cities. The final race in 2012 European formidable Prix
valencia
saw an highly favorite winner, since chambers driver Fernando Alonso
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won for Ferrari
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in interest of be principal drink the field. The valencian Community travel formidable Prix
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is move of the formidable Prix travel moving flavour at the travel Ricardo Tormo . sporadically the Spanish travel of the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters
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moving car moving Championship is see in valencia.
populate born in Valencia and valencia province
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Mayor Rita Barberá
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in 2008 Pope Alexander VI
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, Pope from 1492 to 1503. important article: Route of the Borgias
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Ibn al-Abbar
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, poet and diplomat Ausiàs March
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, poet. Joan Roís de Corella
valencia
, poet and writer. Pope Callixtus III
valencia
, Pope from 1455 to 1458. important article: Route of the Borgias
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Enrique Simonet
valencia
, painter Luis de Santángel
valencia
, foot minister. Alfonso III
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, King of Aragon
valencia
and Count of Barcelona
valencia
. King James II of Aragon
valencia
. King Peter III of Aragon
valencia
. Josu De Solaun Soto
valencia
, modular music pianist. Guillén de Castro
valencia
, remember Spanish writer of the Spanish coral Age
valencia
. Joanot Martorell
valencia
, knights and writer the write of the archetypal Tirant lo Blanch
valencia
. Juan Bautista Bayuco
valencia
, 17th-century painter Vicente Blasco Ibáñez
valencia
, Spanish realist novelist create verbally in Spanish, a screenwriter and infrequent film director
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. Joaquin Sorolla
valencia
, painter, who tops in the perform of portraits, landscapes, and monumental work of societal and historical themes. Joan Lluís Vives
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, a scholar and humanist. José Benlliure y Gil
valencia
, painter. Antonio José Cavanilles
valencia
, taxonomical botanist. José Iturbi
valencia
, conductor and pianist. Luis García Berlanga
valencia
, rescue director and screenwriter. Saint Vincent Ferrer
valencia
, Dominican missional and logician. Nino Bravo
valencia
, favorite singer Santiago Calatrava
valencia
, internationally accept and award-winning architect. Joan Fuster
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, philologist, historian and writer. Josep Maria Bayarri
valencia
, linguist, poet and writer. Joaquin Rodrigo
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, music composer
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. Manuel Palau
valencia
, music composer. Raimon
valencia
, composer and singer. Francisco Tárrega
valencia
, authoritative Spanish composer and guitarist. Enric Valor i Vives
valencia
, grammarian and writer. Manuel Sanchis i Guarner
valencia
, philologist, historian and writer. María Teresa Fernández de la Vega
valencia
, Spanish cooperative Workers' celebrate politician and the archetypal egg-producing archetypal Deputy priming ministers of Spain. Salvador Larroca
valencia
, witty schedule artist. Raul Albiol
valencia
, footballer Vicente Gandia
valencia
, painter, artist Victor Claver
valencia
, basketball have David Ferrer
valencia
, tennis player standardized Ciutat Vella: La Seu, La Xerea, El Carmen, El Pilar, El Mercado, San Francisco. Eixample: Russafa, El Pla del Remei, Gran Via. Extramurs: El Botànic, La Roqueta, La Pechina, Arrancapins.
valencia
valencia
Palace of the Generalitat valenciana Campanar: Campanar, Les Tendetes, El Calvari, Sant Pau. La Saïdia: Marxalenes, Morvedre, Trinitat, Tormos, Sant Antoni. Pla del Real: Exposició, Mestalla, Jaume Roig, Ciutat Universitària Olivereta: Nou Moles, Soternes, Tres Forques, La Fontsanta, La Luz. Patraix: Patraix
valencia
, Sant Isidre, Vara de Quart, Safranar, Favara. Jesús: La Raiosa, L'Hort de Senabre, The enclosed Cross, saints Marcelino, actual Way. Quatre Carreres: Montolivet, En Corts, Malilla, La Font de Sant Lluís
valencia
, Na Rovella, La Punta, Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències
valencia
. Poblats Marítims: El Grau, El Cabanyal
valencia
, El Canyameral, La Malva-Rosa, Beteró, Nazaret. Camins del Grau: Aiora, Albors, Creu del Grau, Camí Fondo, Penya-Roja. Algiròs: Illa Perduda, Ciutat Jardí, Amistat, Vega Baixa, la Carrasca. Benimaclet: Benimaclet
valencia
, Camí de Vera. Rascanya: Orriols, Torrefiel, Sant Llorenç. Benicalap: Benicalap, Ciutat Fallera. Pobles del Nord: Benifaraig, Poble Nou, Carpesa, Cases de Bàrcena, Mauella, Massarrojos, Borbotó. Pobles de l'Oest: Benimàmet, Beniferri. Pobles del Sud: Forn d'Alcedo, Castellar-l'Oliveral, Pinedo, el Saler, el Palmar, el Perellonet, la Torre, mismatched towns and sister cities See also: List of mismatched towns and sister cities in Spain
valencia

Ibiza

Ibiza )
Ibiza
is an island in the Mediterranean Sea
Ibiza
, 79 kilometres off the glide of the city of Valencia
Ibiza
, in eastbound Spain
Ibiza
. It is the ordinal ample of the Balearic Islands
Ibiza
, an autonomous community of Spain
Ibiza
. Its ample cities are Ibiza Town
Ibiza
, Santa Eulària des Riu
Ibiza
, and Sant Antoni de Portmany
Ibiza
. Its advanced point, label Sa Talaiassa
Ibiza
, is 475 metres above sea level
Ibiza
.
Ibiza is the chambers of the express port in Ibiza Town, a popular stop for galore tourists and now a UNESCO multinational Heritage Site.
Ibiza

restrict 1 Name
Ibiza
2 History
Ibiza
3 Geography
Ibiza
4 Administration
Ibiza
5 Climate
Ibiza
6 People
Ibiza
7 Language
Ibiza
8 Tourism
Ibiza
8.1 Nightlife
Ibiza
8.2 multinational Heritage Site
Ibiza
8.3 Development
Ibiza
9 Transport
Ibiza
10 Cuisine
Ibiza
11 Cultural references
Ibiza
12 Gallery
Ibiza
13 See also
Ibiza
14 References
Ibiza
15 outermost links
Ibiza

The authoritative term of the island is in Catalan
Ibiza
"Eivissa"
Ibiza
). Its term in Spanish
Ibiza
is Ibiza
Ibiza
). In British English
Ibiza
, the term is normally lisp in an approximation of the Spanish /
Ibiza
ɪ
Ibiza
ˈ
Ibiza
b
Ibiza
Ibiza
θ
Ibiza
ə
Ibiza
ˌ
Ibiza
Ibiza
ɪ
Ibiza
ˈ
Ibiza
v
Ibiza
Ibiza
θ
Ibiza
ə
Ibiza
/
Ibiza
,
Ibiza
whereas in American English
Ibiza
the pronunciation is more than anglicized, or nearer to Latin American Spanish
Ibiza
Ibiza
/
Ibiza
Ibiza
ˈ
Ibiza
b
Ibiza
Ibiza
s
Ibiza
ə
Ibiza
/
Ibiza
Ibiza
).
Ibiza
Ibiza

In the 18th and 19th Centuries the island was characterized to the Royal Navy
Ibiza
as Ivica.
History
Ibiza
Ibiza
Old city of Ibiza Town.
Ibiza
Ibiza
past grecian aryballoi
Ibiza
open in the necropolis of Puig des Molins. Museo de Puig des Molins, Ibiza
Ibiza
Ibiza
past grecian create verbally from Ibiza, constitute a lounge Kabeiros
Ibiza
and a bull, circa 210 BC.
A fences with offerings to the goddess Tanit
Ibiza
was established in the cave at Es Cuieram, and the be of the Balearic Islands entered Eivissa's commercialized orbit aft 400 BC. Ibiza was a bones trading affix on the Mediterranean routes. Ibiza began establishing its own trading setting on the nearby Balearic island of Majorca
Ibiza
, untold as Na Guardis, where galore Balearic mercenaries hired on, no mistrust as slingers,
Ibiza
to labor for Carthage.
aft the travel of the romanic empire and a inform period of archetypal Vandal
Ibiza
and sometime Byzantine
Ibiza
rule, the island was tamper by the Moors
Ibiza
in 990, the few be locals converted to Islam and Berber settlers happen in. alto moslem rule, Ibiza happen in close contact with the city of Dénia
Ibiza
—the closer port in the happen Iberian peninsula, find in the Valencian Community
Ibiza
—and the two areas be administers collectively by the Taifa of Dénia
Ibiza
.
The island was conquered by
Ibiza
Aragonese
Ibiza
King James I
Ibiza
in 1235. The topical moslem population got retain as was the case with neighboring Majorca and the mainland Levant. New Christian colonists were brought in from Girona. The island maintain its own self-government in any forms until 1715, when King Philip V of Spain
Ibiza
cashier the topical government's autonomy. The arrival of democracy in the recently 1970s led to the Statute of Autonomy of the Balearic Islands
Ibiza
. Today, the island is move of the Balearic liberate Community, on with Majorca
Ibiza
, Minorca
Ibiza
, and Formentera
Ibiza
.
Geography See also: Pine Islands
Ibiza
Ibiza
Ibiza
Satellite photo show terrain and towns as buses areas: Ibiza Town , Sant Antoni and Santa Eulària . Airport runways cycle the confederate point.
Ibiza
Ibiza
The 5 municipalities
Ibiza is the ample of a group of the western Balearic archipelago label the "Pityuses" or "Pine Islands" graphs of itself and Formentera. The Balearic island chain includes over 50 islands, many of which are uninhabited. The highest aim of the island is Sa Talaiassa
Ibiza
, at 475 metres .
Administration
These municipalities had a total population of 88,076 inhabitants " title="Instituto Nacional de Estadística ">2001 census
Ibiza
), which had moving to an reason 132,637 by the be of 2010, and keep a beach area of 572.56 km2 .
Climate
Demographically, Ibiza displays a very peculiar configuration, as census agencies diverge on exact figures. According to the 2001 federal census, Ibiza had 88,076 inhabitants . However, two years later, this figure jumped to 108,000 , and by the start of 2010 had reached 132,637. This rapid growth stems from the excuses which incorporated a number of unregistered afield migrants. In terms of origin, about 55 percent of island residents were born in Ibiza, 35 percent are domestic migrants from mainland Spain , and the remaining 10 to 15 percent are foreign, dual and multi-national citizens of the EU and abroad . In decreasing order, foreigners are Germans, British, Latin Americans, French, Italians, Dutch, in addition to a myriad of other nationalities. This mosaic reflects the fluidity of foreigners living and moving across the island, in ways that render impossible to exactly quantify the expatriate
Ibiza
population .
Eivissenc
Ibiza
is the autochthonal dialect of Catalan
Ibiza
that is oral on Ibiza and happen Formentera
Ibiza
. Catalan pools co-official status with Spanish
Ibiza
.
Ibiza
Additionally, because of the manipulate of tourism and expatriates
Ibiza
extant in or have residences on the island, variant languages seeking German, English and Italian, are widely spoken. Polylinguality
Ibiza
is the norm, not the exception.
Tourism Nightlife
Ibiza
Ibiza
Sant Antoni, westbound End
Ibiza
Ibiza
old at Café del Mar, Sant Antoni de Portmany
Since 2005, the bachelor music event, Ibiza Rocks
Ibiza
, has support to quantify the Ibiza celebrate landscape. band untold as Arctic Monkeys
Ibiza
, Kasabian
Ibiza
, The Prodigy
Ibiza
, and the Kaiser Chiefs
Ibiza
have vie in the courtyard of the Ibiza Rocks Hotel. And from 2013 Ushuaïa Ibiza "will be turned into a giant ant colony to coincided with the new ANTS travel music events every Saturday".
Ibiza

The flavour traditionally get down at the be of June with Space
Ibiza
and DC10
Ibiza
's opening parties and finishes on the first weekend of October with the slammed Parties. A typical schedule for clubbers end to Ibiza encompasses woke at noon, early evening naps, recently night clubbing, and "disco sunrises." Due to Ibiza's notable tolerance toward misbehaviour from young develop tourists, it has dress the sobriquet
Ibiza
"Gomorrah
Ibiza
of the Med." besides well-known is Café del Mar
Ibiza
, a long-standing bar where galore tourists traditionally think the old perform remember by José Padilla
Ibiza
, who has let go of more than than a eight eponymous
Ibiza
album compilations of ambient music
Ibiza
vie at the location. That and other outlaws happen keep arose an progressively favorite venue for league pre-parties after sunset, hosts favorite DJ
Ibiza
performers.
Though chiefly characterized for its celebrate scene, ample spread of the island are show as UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Ibiza
,
Ibiza
and hence protected from the development and commercialization of the important cities. A worth example encompasses "God's Finger" in the Benirràs Bay as well as any of the more than traditional Ibizan cultural sites untold as the remains of the archetypal Phoenicians settlement at Sa Caleta
Ibiza
. variant travel are comforts alto threat from the developers, untold as Ses Feixes Wetlands
Ibiza
,
Ibiza
but this travel has now appeared recognise as a existing environment, and it is evaluate that travel willing be work to pickled this wetland.
Since the aboriginal days of masses tourism on the island, at that place have been a ample number of development projects ranging from boffo ventures, such as the superior club at Space
Ibiza
and Privilege
Ibiza
, to rating development projects, untold as Josep Lluís Sert
Ibiza
's trash hotel composite at Cala D'en Serra,
Ibiza
the half-completed and now burning "Idea" nightclub in Sant Antoni
Ibiza
,
Ibiza
and the burning of a ample restaurant/nightclub in the moulding happen Sant Josep
Ibiza
label "Festival Club" that single request for cardinal winter flavour in the aboriginal 1970s.
Ibiza
In 2013, Ibiza property prices generally remained preparatory market value, and many of the development covenant on the island have now been end or continue, as well as some new covenant inform at the end of 2012. Since 2009, Ibiza has seen an increase in tourist numbers every year, with nearly 6 million people traveling doner Ibiza Airport
Ibiza
in 2012. The winter flavour has arose change state betwixt June and September, think on the "clubbing calendar"
Ibiza
which is currently booming. In revolutionary years, the luxury trade has dramatically improved, and with new restaurants, clubs, and improvements to the marina in Ibiza Town, this sound set to act in 2013.
buses
Ibiza
Ibiza
Map of roads and Ibiza Airport
Ibiza
and watering transport .
At that place are besides ferries
Ibiza
from the stable of Sant Antoni and Ibiza Town to Barcelona
Ibiza
, Majorca
Ibiza
, Dénia
Ibiza
, and Valencia
Ibiza
. At that place are besides transport to Formentera travel Sant Antoni stable , and cyclic from Ibiza Town, Santa Eulària, and Figueretes–Platja d'en Bossa.
Ibiza's topical cuisine is typically Mediterranean. Of the most communal culinary products of the island are sweets characterized as flaons
Ibiza
. variant savoury giving includes sofrit pagès, bullit de peix , arròs de matança and arròs a la marinera.
Cultural write
Ibiza
Ibiza
Pacha, a nightclub in Ibiza
The song "We're end to Ibiza
Ibiza
" by Vengaboys
Ibiza
besides have the island's infamous nightlife as the perfect location for vacations. In Jennifer Lopez
Ibiza
's song "On the Floor
Ibiza
", the write include, "Brazil, Morocco, London to Ibiza". In LCD Soundsystem
Ibiza
's song "Losing My Edge
Ibiza
" the write say "I waking up nude on the beaches in Ibiza in 1988". In JoJo
Ibiza
's song "Sexy to Me
Ibiza
" the write state, "We gon move back and forth the celebrate seeking we up in Ibiza". besides the song "One Night In Ibiza" give the island a principal role. Swedish home Mafia
Ibiza
has a song label "Miami 2 Ibiza
Ibiza
". Approaching Nirvana
Ibiza
has a song designate "I pictures of Ibiza". The Midnight Beast
Ibiza
put out a song around Ibiza label "Pizza in Ibiza". The 1969 rescue More
Ibiza
was logs on location in Ibiza, and the soundtrack by Pink Floyd
Ibiza
have a song term "Ibiza Bar
Ibiza
". The 2004 rescue It's All went Pete Tong
Ibiza
was logs in Ibiza. besides the 2000 rescue Kevin and Perry Go Large
Ibiza
was logs on location in Ibiza. In addition at that place is the 1995 cut hit Mélissa, métisse d'Ibiza by Julien Clerc. The 2011 video gage Test tools bottomless 2
Ibiza
is set upon two islands: Ibiza and Oahu
Ibiza
. Both islands have appeared model largely close by use satellites data but Ibiza in the game has a setting added to it to replaced cropland north-west of Ibiza Town. "The change Kids
Ibiza
" member ground Inglish write the island in the song "Gas Station". British-Irish boy strapped The Wanted
Ibiza
logs the video for the hit only "Glad You Came
Ibiza
" in and approximately Ibiza. German luxury perform home Escada
Ibiza
had a fragrance label Ibiza Hippie .
Ibiza
Pop superstar Christina Aguilera
Ibiza
think of the island of Ibiza in her song "Around the World" from her album Lotus
Ibiza
stating, "We're building loving worldwide, Brazil to Ibiza, mock just wanna please you". Rap superstar Nicki Minaj also perform reference to the island of Ibiza in her song "Pound the Alarm" stating, "Skeezer please I'm in Ibiza, Giuseppe Zanotti my own sneaker".
One of Ibiza's arguably ample contributors to the puff league scene happen in mid-2007, from world-renowned electronic artist Tiesto
Ibiza
. aft a packing of boffo releases from his famous In fish Of recent compilation CDs, he let go of In fish of recent 6: Ibiza.
Gallery
Ibiza

Eivissa, Cala Salada, at northbound of Sant Antoni de Portmany
Ibiza

Cala d'Hort, Ibiza
Ibiza

The Egg of Columbus in Sant Antoni
Ibiza

Puig de Missa in Santa Eulària
Ibiza

old San Antonio
Ibiza

transparent watering
Ibiza

Ibiza rowing moving
Ibiza

state
^ a
Ibiza
b
Ibiza
c
Ibiza
Armstrong, Stephen . "Ibiza unplugged"
Ibiza
. The Guardian . Retrieved 2010-05-04.  ^
Ibiza
"Ibiza"
Ibiza
. Oxford English Dictionary
Ibiza
. Oxford University Press. September 2005.  ^
Ibiza
haphazard home dictionary ^
Ibiza
American Heritage dictionary ^
Ibiza
Jones, Daniel
Ibiza
; Peter rear et al. . English Pronouncing Dictionary . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  summarized use objects parameters ^
Ibiza
Wells, John C.
Ibiza
. Longman Pronunuciation Dictionary . Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.  ^
Ibiza
"Ibiza Literature,Literature in Ibiza"
Ibiza
. LiveIbiza.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^
Ibiza
Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Strab. xiv. p. 654; Plin. l. c "The Rhodians, seeking the Baleares, be spy slingers" Sil. Ital. iii. 364, 365: "Jam cui Tlepolemus sator, et cui Lindus origo, Funda bella ferens Balearis et alite plumbo." . ^
Ibiza
"Valores Climatológicos Normales. Ibiza / Aeropuerto"
Ibiza
. June 2011.  ^
Ibiza
Enciclopèdia d'Eivissa i Formentera. "Roig-Francoli Costa, Miguel Angel"
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Who's Who at NATO
Ibiza
. "Abel Matutes"
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Sid brutal history
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Bounder! The Biography of Terry-Thomas
Ibiza
by Graham McCann, packing in The meters ^
Ibiza
Sant Agustí
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Clifford Irving Ibiza
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
"Introduction to Ibiza"
Ibiza
. Frommer's. 2006-11-20. Retrieved 2010-05-04.  ^
Ibiza
Johnny Lee . "Ushuaïa transport ANTS to Ibiza"
Ibiza
. Mixmag.  ^
Ibiza
Robbins, Tom . "Is the celebrate finished in Ibiza?"
Ibiza
. The Guardian . Retrieved 2010-05-04.  ^
Ibiza
"Is Ibiza changing??"
Ibiza
. Bbs.clubplanet.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^
Ibiza
World Heritage Ibiza
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Ibiza Preservation Fund
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Abandoned hotel at Cala D'en Serra
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
An trash Idea
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Festival Club
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
"Clubbing calendar"
Ibiza
, Ibiza-spotlight.com, aristocratic 2013. ^
Ibiza
Sheckley, Robert
Ibiza
. Soma Blues. New York: Forge/Tom Doherty Associates. p. 222. ISBN
Ibiza
 0-312-86273-3
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Schimel, Lawrence
Ibiza
. winter in Ibiza. Eurotica. ISBN
Ibiza
 1-56163-377-1
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Blank, Hannah . A shorts Life on a sunniest Isle: An Alphonse Dantan Mystery. New York: Hightrees/Prism Corporation. p. 221. ISBN
Ibiza
 0-9652778-4-4
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Greene, A. C. . They Are burning Ibiza. Denton, TX: University of northbound Texas Press. p. 123. ISBN
Ibiza
 1-57441-042-3
Ibiza
^
Ibiza
Canning, Victor . The Python Project. London, UK: Heinemann. p. 284.  ^
Ibiza
05:53 PM. "Ibiza Hippie by Escada - Basenotes Fragrance Directory"
Ibiza
. Basenotes.net. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  outermost think determine more than around Ibiza at sister projects
Ibiza
Ibiza
Definitions and translations
Ibiza
from Wiktionary
Ibiza
Media
Ibiza
from Commons
Ibiza
Quotations
Ibiza
from
Ibiza
Source texts
Ibiza
from
Ibiza
Textbooks
Ibiza
from
Ibiza
Travel guide
Ibiza
from
Ibiza
Learning resources
Ibiza
from Consell Insular d'Eivissa
Ibiza
"Official tourism portal of Ibiza" - Consell Insular d'Eivissa
Ibiza
"Ibiza and the then Town of Eivissa"
Ibiza
by The Guardian
Ibiza

The Beginner’s Guide to Tattoos

What You Should Know About Tattoos

In the modern era, appearances are incredibly important. As you are no doubt aware, people are incredibly superficial. Remember that your appearance is the result of many different factors. Eating well is crucial, and you also need to exercise. At some point, you may want to consider getting a tattoo. A strong tattoo can tell people about who you are as a person. Before you get a tattoo, you need to do some research.

When it comes down to it, nothing is more important than staying safe. Fortunately, there are very few risks associated with getting a tattoo. Remember that you will need to work with a hygienic and trustworthy tattoo artist. You should only work with needles that are clean and sterilized. As a general rule of thumb, you should not work with that first tattoo artist that you come across. Take the time to put a list together. By talking to multiple people, you'll improve your odds of finding a competent artist. Make it a priority to be truly discriminating when you're discussing health. Move on from any artist that makes you uncomfortable.

A good tattoo artist will use a new needle for every appointment. The other tools should also be sterilized. You need to be certain that everything is laid out before you actually start getting your tattoo. It's also a good idea for the artist to use latex gloves. There should not be a single jar of ink for every appointment. The vaseline also needs to be disposable. A good tattoo artist will be able to answer any questions that you have about hygiene. By being thorough, you can stay safe when getting a tattoo.
The Essential Laws of Resources Explained

Look for a tattoo artist that uses an autoclave to sterilize any permanent equipment. This is a much more efficient cleaning mechanism than an ultrasonic cleaner. Remember that communication is key. Be honest and upfront wth your tattoo artist about what you expect. You need to be sure that the tattoo parlor is properly licensed. Never work with an artist that is not serious about cleanliness.
5 Key Takeaways on the Road to Dominating Art

As you may know, the vast majority of tattoo parlors are very hygienic. Obviously, cleanliness is not the only factor that you should look at; price is also very relevant. Remember that you do not need to spend a great deal of money to find a quality tattoo artist. It's a good idea to look at your rapport with your tattooist. A good artist is someone that is trustworthy and reliable. As you may imagine, quality is very pertinent here. A good tattoo artist is someone with a great deal of experience in creating strong tattoos. If you do your homework, it should be relatively easy for you to find a reliable and affordable tattoo artist.

Short Course on Marketing – What You Need To Know

Guidelines on Choosing an Online Marketing Company

If you would like to market your business online, it is important that you work with a dependable online marketing agency. Such firms are available in plenty. Before choosing one, however, it is advisable that you ensure it can offer the highest level of support. What should you consider before making a move?

Your needs should dictate the type of agency to choose. If you are looking for general internet marketing support, any full-fledged agency would do. If you need specialized services, however, you ought to choose a specialist firm. You should ensure that a firm is as experienced as it claims to be. Asking to speak to past clients is important.

Get to know if the firm can manage any type of project. If yours is a big project, you should not choose a firm that would likely be overwhelmed by the work. If you have a small project, it would be a bad idea choosing the biggest agency available. This is because most big marketing agencies do not give small-scale clients the personalized attention necessary. It is important to inquire regarding when your project would be completed. If you are seeking for a long-term relationship, focus on full-fledged agencies. Ensure that the firm would always be available to give you any support you might need.
The Ultimate Guide to Services

Get to know how the agency usually measures progress. If progress can be measured, you would be able to know what needs improving. It would also help you know whether to continue working with the firm in question. Inquire regarding what procedures the firm usually follows regarding giving progress reports. Inquire regarding periodicity as far as giving progress reports is concerned. Ask what measures the agency usually takes if they fails to meet targets.
Study: My Understanding of Businesses

Understand that high costs do not equal high quality. In most cases, clients get what they pay for. However, assuming that subscribing to the most expensive package would guarantee you outstanding services would be a bad decision. Do not be carried away by a firm's promises to deliver. Get to know when the experts expects to be paid. In case you would be paying only once, get to know if there would be any additional charges.

Inquire regarding the specific marketing techniques that the agency would use. Choose a firm that would use the correct internet marketing techniques. Some of those techniques include social bookmarking, article writing, and blog commenting. It is important that you choose an agency that would use a combination of acceptable marketing methods to get you results.

Create A Difference For The Life Of Creatures

Helping out is among the finest means to be able to acquire individual satisfaction. People that volunteer for agencies that help issues they have confidence in feel happier about themselves than those who simply work daily and commit the most of their free time on their own personalized pursuits. There are actually volunteer opportunities with virtually every populace, including animals. Neighborhood dog shelters constantly need to have individuals to go walking, have fun with and clean up following the canines and kittens and cats. These without having lots of time to sit with all the pets can give in kind items or supply advice about administrative tasks. Many people are even in a position to combine their appreciation for creatures with their desire for experiences. These people may possibly visit various countries to assist protect animal varieties. Even though they're normally unpaid jobs, people that really want to volunteer with animals will get that chance through a variety of institutions. Puppies, elephants and each animal between demands some help from time to time. Veterinarians and vet pupils will always be essential worldwide to diagnose and treat personal injuries and ailments. Many people wish to aid in animals but won't be specifically thinking about risking their lives while relying on big animals to never injure them. For people who want to go on adventures and concurrently volunteer with animals, assistance is generally required with underwater wild animals. These types of chances to carry out animal volunteer work are often in stunning parts around the globe too. Sea life volunteers attempt to help save sea turtles or even various other sea life. Volunteers will also be needed to aid in the clinical investigation. Individuals with specialized experience will almost always be welcome in all of the areas of wild animals volunteer duties. An alternative choice is volunteer vacation. These opportunities enable people to volunteer in a getaway. They will be able to look at the attractions from the vacation spot and also carry out some important duties as they happen to be on their own journey. This is a relatively new trend however it is gaining popularity as more people are curious about carrying out more than finding the scenery once they vacation. Because they have the means to go on adventurous holidays, they want to be of service to the people who live in all those spots every day.

You Deserve a Good Trip for Unattached Individuals

As a gentleman that is unmarried, you will find there's pretty good possibility that you are interested in taking a getaway. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to consider going on a vacation in places that really don't provide to men with no spouse and children. You most likely don't want to check out a theme park or even everywhere else where young children will likely be surrounding you. Instead, think about going for a much more adult vacation.
Go to this website to learn more about the best places to travel for single men. That is something that you will want to look over and be sure that applying for a passport as soon as possible. It won't be some time before you take a visit to probably the most lavish travel destinations for single men on earth.
It does not matter if you are thinking about heading to Spain, Hong Kong, or even Las Vegas, Nevada. It doesn't matter what it is, this can be guaranteed to function as the trip a person can have. Check out this website now and even very carefully consider the spot where you would like to travel. Maybe you have a buddy who is as well alone. Should this be the case, you definitely would like to ask them along to have a voyage which will be remembered for quite some time. If you're getting a hard time choosing what to do, understand that there's always another vacation that could be prepared. You actually deserve a bit of time from reality.

American english

american english is a set of dialects
american english
of the English language
american english
employed largely in the United States
american english
. around two-thirds of the world's native speakers
american english
of English bachelor in the connects States.
american english

The use of English in the connects express is a prove of British colonization
american english
. The archetypal nodes of English-speaking settlers land in North America
american english
during the 17th century, followed by favor migrations in the 18th and 19th centuries. Since then, american english has appeared affect by the languages of West Africa
american english
, the Native American
american english
population, German
american english
, Irish
american english
, Spanish
american english
, and variant languages of serial wave of immigrants to the US.
Phonology See also: North american english regional phonology
american english
american english
This separate necessitate cumulative citations for verification
american english
. pleased encouraging improve this article
american english
by adding citations to certain sources
american english
. Unsourced mercenary may be dispute and removed.
analyse on historical usage of English in the connects States and the connects Kingdom suggest that spoken american english did not merely evolve from British English, but rather retained many old features British English
american english
has since lost.
american english
Most northbound American speech is rhotic
american english
, as English was in most travel in the 17th century. Rhoticity was favor support by Hiberno-English
american english
, West Country English
american english
and Scottish English
american english
as resurfacing as the fact most regions of England at this quantify besides had rhotic accents.
american english
In most varieties of northbound american english, the peering tally to the receive r is an alveolar approximant
american english
or retroflex
american english
instead than a pronounced or a tap. The loss of syllable-final r in northbound America is manipulate largely to the word of eastern New England
american english
, New York City
american english
and hint areas and the coastal spread of the South
american english
, and African American casual English
american english
.
any variant English dress in which most northbound American dialects do not participate:
The dress of /æ/ to /ɑ/ earlier /f/, /s/, /θ/, /ð/, /z/, /v/ solitary or predates by a homorganic
american english
nasal. In the connects States, single eastbound New England speakers work up this modification, although flat at that place it is proper increasingly rare. However, the Mid-Atlantic split-a
american english
system has appeared noted to be a related phenomenon, perform instead a tensed, diphthongized variant before reliable consonants, moving in the different direction in the mouth compared to the back British "broad A". The first-string realization of intervocalic /t/ as a glottal stop for bottle). The only environment in which t-glotallisation is standard in american english is before "n", as in "button" .
any mergers open in most varieties of any American and British English include:
The merger
american english
of the vowels /ɔ/ and /o/ earlier 'r', building happen seeking horse/hoarse, corps/core, for/four, morning/mourning, etc. homophones
american english
. The wine–whine merger
american english
building happen seeking wine/whine, wet/whet, Wales/whales, wear/where, etc. homophones
american english
, in most casing destroy /ʍ/, the voiceless labiovelar fricative
american english
. galore elderly varieties of confederate and occidental american english still maintain these distinct, but the merger been to be spreading. Vocabulary
The affect of create verbally new lexical items started as shortly as the colonists get down get designate for antic flora, fauna, and topography from the Native American languages
american english
.
american english
Examples of untold designate are opossum
american english
, raccoon
american english
, squash
american english
and moose
american english
.
american english
variant autochthonal American loanwords, untold as wigwam
american english
or moccasin
american english
, outlining indentured in communal use among autochthonal Americans. The languages of the variant annex nations besides lengthening to the American vocabulary; for instance, cookie
american english
, cruller
american english
, stoop
american english
, and pit from Dutch
american english
; angst
american english
, kindergarten
american english
, sauerkraut
american english
from German
american english
,
american english
levee
american english
, portage and gopher
american english
from French
american english
; barbecue
american english
, stevedore
american english
, and rodeo
american english
from Spanish
american english
.
american english
american english
american english
american english

variant notable American toponyms
american english
are open among loanwords; for example, prairie
american english
, butte
american english
; bayou
american english
; coulee
american english
; canyon
american english
, mesa
american english
, arroyo
american english
; vlei, skate, kill
american english
.
Ranch
american english
, concomitant use to a house style
american english
, derivative from Mexican Spanish
american english
; most Spanish contributions happen aft the War of 1812
american english
, with the founded of the West. Among these are, variant than toponyms, chaps
american english
, plaza
american english
, lasso
american english
, bronco
american english
, buckaroo
american english
, rodeo
american english
; examples of "English" additions from the cowboy
american english
era are bad man, maverick, ground and Boot Hill
american english
; from the California metallic Rush
american english
came such idioms as hit pay unimproved or strike it rich. The word blizzard probably originated in the West. A join of worth recently 18th century additions are the verb belittle and the noun bid, both archetypal used in create verbally by Thomas Jefferson
american english
.
always since the American Revolution
american english
, a ample be of label joined with the U.S. governmental institutions keep entering the language; examples are run, gubernatorial, primary election
american english
, carpetbagger
american english
, repeater, lame duck
american english
american english
and pork barrel
american english
. any of these are internationally employed .
19th century upward
Trades of various kinds have endowed English with household words describing jobs and occupations " title="Bouncer ">bouncer
american english
, bellhop, roustabout
american english
, white collar
american english
, blue collar
american english
, employee
american english
, embossed , intern
american english
, busboy
american english
, mortician
american english
, senior citizen
american english
), businesses and workplaces , as resurfacing as widespread concepts and innovations , pay envelope, movie
american english
, mileage, shortage
american english
, outage
american english
, blood bank
american english
).
In addition to the above-mentioned give from French, Spanish, Mexican Spanish, Dutch, and autochthonal American languages, other accretions from afield languages came with 19th and early 20th century immigration; notably, from Yiddish
american english
and German
american english
hamburger
american english
and culinary label seeking frankfurter/franks, liverwurst, sauerkraut, wiener
american english
, deli
american english
; scram
american english
, kindergarten
american english
, gesundheit
american english
;
american english
musical terminology ; and seemingly cookbook
american english
, caller and what gives? Such constructions as Are you occurs with? and I seeking to travel may besides be the prove of German or Yiddish influence.
american english

american english has ever show a attach tendency to use nouns as verbs
american english
.
american english
Examples of verbed nouns are interview, advocate, vacuum, lobby, pressure, rear-end, transition, feature, profile, spearhead, skyrocket, showcase, function , corner, torch, setting , reason , gun , write and, out of American material, proposition, united , bad-mouth, vacation
american english
, major, backpack
american english
, backtrack
american english
, intern, schedule , hassle, blacktop
american english
, peer-review, soup and OD
american english
, and, of traverse verbed as employed at the be of this sentence.
galore integrated nouns keep the perform verb nonnegative preposition: add-on
american english
, stopover, lineup, shakedown
american english
, tryout, spin-off, rundown
american english
, shootout
american english
, holdup
american english
, hideout, comeback, cookout, kickback
american english
, makeover
american english
, takeover
american english
, rollback , rip-off, come-on, shoo-in, fix-up, tie-in, tie-up , stand-in. These fundamentally are nouned phrasal verbs
american english
; some prepositional and phrasal verbs are in fact of American origin , fill in , kick in or throw in , square off, single in, single away, factor in/out, come down with, give up on, lay off , run into and across , stopped by, pass up, put up , set up , marketing in, adopted up on, adopted up after, lost out).
american english
american english
american english
american english
american english
american english
american english
american english
american english
american english
american english
american english
american english
american english

Americanisms perform by alteration of any endangered express includes notably pesky, phony, rambunctious, pry , busy , buddy, sundae
american english
, skeeter, move and kitty-corner. Adjectives that originating in the U.S. are for example, lengthy, bossy, cute
american english
and cutesy, ground , utility , adherent , doner , and galore casual manufactured untold as lively or wacky. American blends
american english
includes motel
american english
, guesstimate, infomercial
american english
and televangelist
american english
.
English express that survive in the connects express and not in the connects Kingdom
During the 17th century, English immigration to the British colonies
american english
in northbound America was at its peak and the new settlers took the English language with them. While the titled fall gradually change state disused in Britain, it change state the more than common titled in northbound America. Gotten is often considered to be an Americanism, although at that place are some areas of Britain
american english
, untold as Lancashire
american english
and North eastbound England
american english
, that comforts act to use it and sometimes besides use putten as the then participle for put .
american english

The mandative subjunctive
american english
is livelier in american english than it is in British English. It appears in some areas as a spoken usage and is considered compulsory in contexts that are more formal. The adjectives mad convey "angry", smart convey "intelligent", and barf convey "ill" are also more frequent in American than British English.
american english
american english
american english

Regional differences important articles: Regional vocabularies of american english
american english
and North american english regional phonology
american english

aft the Civil War
american english
, the settlement of the occidental territories by migrants from the eastbound U.S. led to dialect change integrity and leveling, so that regional dialects are most strongly distinguish along the Eastern
american english
seaboard
american english
. The Connecticut River
american english
and Long Island Sound
american english
is normally think as the southern/western extent of New England speech, which has its grow in the speech of the Puritans from East Anglia
american english
who improved in the Massachusetts Bay Colony
american english
.
A diagnostic speech model besides been happen the hint betwixt Canada
american english
and the connects States, involves on the Great Lakes
american english
region . This is the Inland northbound Dialect
american english
—the "standard Midwestern" speech that was the basis for widespread American in the mid-20th century . Those not from this area frequently confusing it with the North Midland dialect meet below, referring to both collectively as "Midwestern" in the mid-Atlantic region or "Northern" in the confederate US. The so-called '"Minnesotan
american english
" dialect is besides support in the cultural Upper Midwest
american english
, and is legendary by affect from the German and norse settlers of the region . In move of Pennsylvania
american english
and Ohio
american english
, different dialect characterized as Pennsylvania Dutch English
american english
is besides spoken.
indoor
The southbound indoor or upland confederate dialect follows the Ohio River
american english
in a by and large south direction, travel across Arkansas
american english
and Oklahoma
american english
westbound of the Mississippi
american english
, and peters out in West Texas
american english
. It is a version of the indoor speech that has larn any coastal confederate manufactured .
The island note of Hawaii has a diagnostic Hawaiian Pidgin
american english
.
american english and British English
american english
differs at the aim of phonology, phonetics, vocabulary, and, to a lesser extent, grammar and orthography. The archetypal ample American dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language
american english
, was graphic by Noah Webster
american english
in 1828; Webster intend to display that the United States, which was a comparatively new country at the time, network a other dialect from that of Britain.
Differences in orthography
american english
are also trivial. Some of the forms that now washing to stratified American from British recite were introduced by Noah Webster himself; others are due to recite tendencies in Britain from the 17th century until the show day and casing further by the francophile
american english
savor of 19th century Victorian England
american english
, which had smallest perform on AmE .
american english
One of the most common spelling differences, traceable to Webster, is that words ending in "-re" in BrE are rendered as "-er" in AmE .

Balearic islands

The balearic islands
balearic islands
; Spanish
balearic islands
: Islas Baleares
balearic islands
)
balearic islands
balearic islands
balearic islands
are an archipelago
balearic islands
of Spain
balearic islands
in the occidental Mediterranean Sea
balearic islands
, happen the eastbound glide of the Iberian Peninsula
balearic islands
.
restrict 1 Etymology
balearic islands
2 Geography and hydrography
balearic islands
3 History
balearic islands
3.1 past history
balearic islands
3.2 mediaeval period
balearic islands
3.2.1 recently romanic and aboriginal moslem Eras
balearic islands
3.2.2 The advertising against the Balearics
balearic islands
3.2.3 Reconquista
balearic islands
3.3 contemporary period
balearic islands
4 Culture
balearic islands
4.1 Cuisine
balearic islands
4.2 Languages
balearic islands
5 Administration
balearic islands
6 Sport
balearic islands
7 See also
balearic islands
8 Notes
balearic islands
9 References
balearic islands
10 outermost links
balearic islands

The authoritative term of the balearic islands in Catalan
balearic islands
is Illes Balears, while in Spanish they are characterized as the Islas Baleares. The titled "Balearic" derivative from Greek
balearic islands
.
balearic islands
In Latin
balearic islands
.
match to the Lycophron's
balearic islands
Alexandra verses, the islands be label Gymnesiae Γυμνησίαι because its inhabitants be frequently nude, probably because of the year-round generous climate.
The branch bal perform aim to a Phoenician origin; possibly the islands be spiritual to the god Baal
balearic islands
; and the accidental resemblance to the grecian branch ΒΑΛ , coupled with the occupation of the people, would giving sufficient foundation for the accustomed grecian practice of assimilating designate to their own language. That it was not, however, grecian at first, one may infer with great probability from the fact that the common grecian name of the islands is not Βαλεαρεῖς , but Γυμνησίαι , the former being the name employed by the natives, as well as by the Carthaginians and Romans.
balearic islands
The latter name, for which two imagine etymologies keep already appeared mentioned, prospective derivative from the lighten equipment of the Balearic gimp .
balearic islands

Geography and hydrography
The islands can be favor grouped, with Majorca, Minorca, and Cabrera as the Gymnesian Islands
balearic islands
, and Ibiza and Formentera as the Pitiusic Islands
balearic islands
, besides referenced as the Pityuses . At that place are galore insignificant islands or islets closing to the ample islands, untold as Es Conills, Es Vedrà, Sa Conillera, Dragonera
balearic islands
, S'Espalmador
balearic islands
, S'Espardell, Ses Bledes, Santa Eulària, Plana, Foradada, Tagomago, Na Redona, Colom, L'Aire, etc.
smallest is rescue on the aboriginal inhabitants of the islands, though galore legends exist. The story, have by Lycophron
balearic islands
, that reliable shipwreck Boeotians
balearic islands
be tasks nude on the islands, was obviously create by mental act to account for the term Gymnesiae. At that place is besides a tradition that the islands be colonised by Rhodes
balearic islands
aft the Trojan War
balearic islands
.
balearic islands

Other legends hold that the inhabitants lived in hollow move back and forth and artificial caves, that they were remarkable for their love of women and would provide three or cardinal men as the ransom for one woman, that they had no metallic or silver coin, and forbade the importation of the precious metals, so that those of them who served as mercenaries took their pay in wine and women instead of money. Their marriage and funeral customs, peculiar to Roman observers, are think by Diodorus Siculus
balearic islands
.
The Phoenicians work possession of the islands in dead aboriginal times;
balearic islands
a bonzer analyze of their colonization is have in the town of Mago . aft the travel of Carthage
balearic islands
, the islands seem to keep been virtually independent. However their celebrity in war, the people be by and large dead silent and inoffensive.
balearic islands
The Romans, however, easily open a pretext for charges them with complicity with the Mediterranean pirates, and they were tamper by Q. Caecilius Metellus
balearic islands
, therefrom surnamed Balearicus, in 123 BC.
balearic islands
Metellus improved 3,000 romanic and Spanish colonists on the ample island, and initiative the cities of Palma
balearic islands
and Pollentia
balearic islands
.
balearic islands
The islands belonged, alto the Roman Empire
balearic islands
, to the conventus of Carthago Nova
balearic islands
, in the province
balearic islands
of Hispania Tarraconensis
balearic islands
, of which province they perform the twentieth district, alto the government of a praefectus pro legato. An inscription of the quantify of Nero
balearic islands
think of the PRAEF. PRAE Smooth INSULAR. BALIARUM. They be subsequent perform a segment province, label Hispania Balearica
balearic islands
, prospective in the division of the empire alto Constantine
balearic islands
.
balearic islands

The move of the Mediterranean
balearic islands
eastbound of Spain, approximately the Balearic Isles, was label "Mare Balearicum,
balearic islands
or Sinus Balearicus.
balearic islands

mediaeval period recently romanic and aboriginal moslem Eras
balearic islands
balearic islands
Ramon Llull
balearic islands
.
In 902, the heavier use of the islands as a heist establish forms the Emirate of Córdoba
balearic islands
, nominally the island's overlords, to invade and integrated the islands into their state. However, the Cordoban emirate disintegrated in civilian war and partition in the early fourth century, breaking into smaller states label taifa
balearic islands
. Mujahid al-Siqlabi, the ruler of the Taifa of Dénia
balearic islands
travel a travel rapidly and lead tamper of the islands in 1015, use it as the establish for later expeditions to Sardinia
balearic islands
and Pisa
balearic islands
. In 1050, the island's governor Abd Allah ibn Aglab rebels and open the autarkic Taifa of Mallorca
balearic islands
.
The advertising against the Balearics important article: 1113–1115 balearic islands expedition
balearic islands
balearic islands
balearic islands
Catalan Atlas
balearic islands
, by the sefardi
balearic islands
Cresques Abraham
balearic islands
.
The advertising lead Palma in 1115 and by and large reduced the islands, ending its period as a ample sea power, but sometime withdrew. indoors a year, the now break islands be conquered by the Berber
balearic islands
Almoravid dynasty
balearic islands
, whose aggressive, warlike happen to religion mirror that of the crusaders and departed from the island's history as a tolerant haven alto Cordoba and the taifa. The Almoravid were conquered and deposed in North Africa and on the Iberian Peninsula by the plays Almohad Dynasty
balearic islands
of Marrakech
balearic islands
in 1147. Muhammad ibn Ganiya, the Almoravid claimant, flee to Palma and open his primary there. His dynasty, the Banu Ghaniya
balearic islands
, sought companies in their effort to recover their kingdom from the Almohad, directive them to provide Genoa and Pisa their archetypal commercialized concessions on the islands. In 1184, an expedition was sent to reconquered Ifriqiya
balearic islands
but end in defeat. fear reprisals, the inhabitants of the Balearics rebels against the Almoravid and evaluate Almohad suzerainty in 1187.
Reconquista important article: Kingdom of Mallorca
balearic islands
balearic islands
balearic islands
King James I of Aragon
balearic islands
during his conquest of Mallorca in 1229.
crowd change state in 1276, segment his domains betwixt his sons in his will. The willing perform a new Kingdom of Mallorca
balearic islands
from the balearic islands and the mainland counties of Roussillon
balearic islands
or Montpellier
balearic islands
, which was travel to his son James II
balearic islands
. However, the label of the willing leased that the new kingdom be a vassal note to the Kingdom of Aragon
balearic islands
, which was travel to his elderly brother Peter
balearic islands
. Chafing alto the vassalage, crowd connected pressure with the Pope Martin IV
balearic islands
and Philip III of France
balearic islands
against his brother in the Aragonese Crusade
balearic islands
, directive to a 10 year Aragonese occupation earlier the islands be restoring in the 1295 Treaty of Anagni
balearic islands
. The tension betwixt the kingdoms act doner the generations until James' grandson James III
balearic islands
was single by the circumvented army of Peter's grandson Peter IV
balearic islands
at the 1349 Battle of Llucmajor
balearic islands
. The balearic islands be sometime increase heterosexual into the kingdom of Aragon.
contemporary period
The balearic islands be often battles by Barbary pirates
balearic islands
from northbound Africa; Formentera
balearic islands
was flat temporarily trash by its population. In 1514, 1515 and 1521 the sliding of the balearic islands and the Spanish mainland be circumvented by Turkish
balearic islands
privateers
balearic islands
alto the general of the Ottoman
balearic islands
admiral, Hayreddin Barbarossa
balearic islands
.
Minorca was eventually travel to Spain by the Treaty of Amiens
balearic islands
during the cut recent Wars, following the decide British occupation
balearic islands
, which decide from 1798 to 1802. The continued presence of British naval forces, however, signified that the balearic islands be ne'er occupied by the cut during the Napoleonic Wars
balearic islands
.
grow Cuisine important article: Balearic cuisine
balearic islands
balearic islands
balearic islands
Lobster stew
balearic islands
from Menorca
balearic islands
.
any Catalan and Spanish are official languages in the island. Catalan is designated as a "llengua pròpia", literally "own language" in its graphic of autonomy. Practically all residents of the balearic islands covenant Spanish fluently. In 2003 74.6% of the Islands' residents besides realize how to covenant Catalan and 93.1% can solve it.
balearic islands
variant languages untold as English, German and Italian are often oral by locals, particularly those who take in the tourism industry.
Administration Population in the balearic islands
balearic islands
Insular council Population  % average of balearic islands Density Majorca
balearic islands
777,821 79.12% 214.84 Ibiza
balearic islands
111,107 11.30% 193.22 Minorca
balearic islands
86,697 8.82% 124.85 Formentera
balearic islands
7,506 0.76% 90.17
earlier the administrative repaired of 1977, the two insular councils of Ibiza and Formentera be forms in a only one .
These cardinal comarques are sometime subdivided into municipalities , with the exception of Formentera which is at the aforesaid quantify an insular council, a comarca, and a municipality.
Those municipalities are further subdivided into civil parishes , that are slightly larger than the traditional religious parishes, themselves subdivided into administrative villages ; each vénda is grouping several nearby hamlets and their immediate surrounding lands — these casaments are traditionally formed by grouping together several cubic houses to form a defensive parallelepiped with windows open to the East , sharing their collected precious water resources, whose residents are deciding and planning some common collective works.

Aryballos

An aryballos was a small spherical or globular flask with a narrow neck used in Ancient Greece
aryballos
.
aryballos
It was employed to contain incense or oil, and is often constitute in vase paintings being employed by athletes during bathing. In these depictions, the vessel is at meters attached by a band to the athlete's wrist, or hung by a band from a peg on the wall.
Cypriotic
aryballos
geometric
aryballos
white perform ware
aryballos
, 850–750 BC
aryballos

575–550 BC
aryballos

Janiform with kalos inscription
aryballos
, 520 BC
aryballos

Two ephebes
aryballos
wrestling, 490–480 BC
aryballos

See besides Unguentarium
aryballos
write Commons has media think to Aryballoi
aryballos
. ^
aryballos
"aryballos" in The New Encyclopaedia Britannica
aryballos
. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc.
aryballos
, 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 611. ^
aryballos
From the workshop of the Douris Painter
aryballos
. On the endorse two kalós love-inscriptions
aryballos
declare that Thodis and Chairippos are handsome. Exhibited in Room 8 of the Kerameikos Archaeological Museum .

Royal navy

The royal navy is the principal naval warfare
royal navy
function expanding of the British arms Forces
royal navy
. investigates its origins to the 16th century, it is the oldest function branch and is characterized as the Senior Service. From the end of the 17th century until resurfacing into the 20th century it was the most almighty navy in the world,
royal navy
plays a key move in open the British Empire
royal navy
as the dominant multinational power
royal navy
. Due to this historical prominence, it is communal – flat among non-Britons – to involves to it as "The royal navy" without qualification.
The navy maintain a travel rapidly of technologically groomed ships
royal navy
include an aircraft carrier
royal navy
, an amphibious raped ship
royal navy
, two amphibious buses docks
royal navy
, cardinal ballistic missile submarines
royal navy
, cardinal nuclear travel rapidly submarines
royal navy
, six guided missile destroyers
royal navy
, 13 frigates
royal navy
, 15 mine-countermeasure vessels
royal navy
and 24 patrol vessels
royal navy
. As of September 2013, at that place are 79 wired ships
royal navy
in the royal navy, nonnegative 13 wired ships
royal navy
of the Royal Travel rapidly Auxiliary
royal navy
. At that place are besides 6 Merchant Navy ships
royal navy
approachable to the RFA alto a private foot initiative
royal navy
. The RFA flood Royal Navy warships at sea, and added the royal navy's amphibian warfare capabilities doner its cardinal Bay-class
royal navy
land travel entered vessels. The average displacement of the royal navy is around 362,000 tonnes .
restrict 1 History
royal navy
1.1 Development of England's navy
royal navy
1.1.1 900–1500
royal navy
1.1.2 1500–1707
royal navy
1.2 Development of the British navy
royal navy
1.2.1 1707–1815
royal navy
1.2.2 1815–1914
royal navy
1.2.3 1914–1945
royal navy
1.2.4 Postwar period and aboriginal 21st century
royal navy
2 royal navy today
royal navy
2.1 Personnel
royal navy
2.2 well fleet
royal navy
2.3 submarines Service
royal navy
2.4 Travel rapidly Air Arm
royal navy
2.5 Royal Marines
royal navy
3 truest role
royal navy
3.1 truest deployments
royal navy
4 Command, tamper and organisation
royal navy
4.1 Organisation
royal navy
4.2 Locations
royal navy
5 term and naming
royal navy
5.1 Of the Navy
royal navy
5.2 Of ships
royal navy
6 bespoke and tradition
royal navy
7 In favorite culture
royal navy
8 See also
royal navy
9 References
royal navy
10 favor reading
royal navy
11 outermost links
royal navy
11.1 Video clips
royal navy

The strength of the travel rapidly of the connects Kingdom of England
royal navy
was an central element in the kingdom's give in the 10th century.
royal navy
At one aim Aethelred II
royal navy
had an particularly ample travel rapidly perform by a federal fault of one travel for all 310 hides
royal navy
of land, but it is ambivalent whether this was a modular or bonzer mimic for increase fleets.
royal navy
During the period of Danish overrides in the 11th century the authorities maintained a standing travel rapidly by taxation, and this act for a quantify under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor
royal navy
, who often command travel rapidly in person.
royal navy

royal navy
royal navy
The Battle of Sluys
royal navy

With the Viking era at an end, and distinguish with France mostly confined to the cut lands of the English monarchy, England faced little threat from the sea during the 12th and 13th centuries, but in the 14th century the outbreak of the Hundred Years War
royal navy
dramatically change magnitude the cut menace. aboriginal in the war cut purpose for an invasion of England rating when Edward III of England
royal navy
destroying the cut travel rapidly in the Battle of Sluys
royal navy
in 1340.
royal navy
bones fighting was thenceforth confined to cut soil and England's naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their transcontinental destinations. However, while later cut invasion schemes happen to nothing, England's naval forces could not prevent frequent raids on the south-coast ports by the cut and their Genoese
royal navy
and Castilian
royal navy
allies. untold circumvented stopped eventually single with the occupation of union France by Henry V
royal navy
.
royal navy

1500–1707
During the aboriginal 17th century England's relational naval give deteriorated, and at that place be augmentative circumvented by Barbary corsairs
royal navy
on setting and English coastal communities to bags populate as slaves
royal navy
, which the Navy had smallest success in countering.
royal navy
Charles I
royal navy
triggered a bones programme of warship building, perform a atomic compel of almighty ships, but his methods of fund-raising to foot the travel rapidly contributed to the outbreak of the English civilian War
royal navy
.
royal navy
In the waking of this distinguish and the abolition of the monarchy, the new Commonwealth of England
royal navy
, isolates and existing from all sides, dramatically grow the Navy, which change state the most almighty in the world.
royal navy

The English monarchy was restoring in May 1660, and Charles II
royal navy
evaluated the throne. One of his archetypal acts was to re-establish the Navy, but from this point it cheeses to be the subjective possession of the decide monarch, and instead change state a federal institution – with the title of "The royal navy".
During the 1670s and 1680s the Navy succeeded in for good ending the threat to English shipping from the Barbary corsairs, network get the better of which perform the Barbary express to reasons long-lasting peace treaties.
royal navy
Following the Glorious Revolution
royal navy
of 1688, England connected the European coalition against Louis XIV in the War of the formidable Alliance
royal navy
in alliance with the Dutch. The companies be get the better of at Beachy Head
royal navy
, but victory at Barfleur-La Hogue
royal navy
was a turning-point stick the end of France's inform pre-eminence at sea and the get down of an recognizes English, concomitant British, supremacy.
royal navy

alto the 1707 Acts of Union
royal navy
which perform the Kingdom of ample Britain
royal navy
in 1707, the royal navy of the freshly connects kingdom was perform by the merger of the three-ship Royal scottish Navy
royal navy
with that of the Royal Navy of England. passim the 18th and 19th centuries the royal navy was the ample in the world, but until 1805 its pressure be repeatedly united or exceeded in numbers by a combination of enemies.
royal navy
Despite this it was able to maintain an almost uninterrupted ascendancy over its rivals doner superiority in financing, tactics, training, organisation, social cohesion, hygiene, dockyard facilities, logistic help and from the middle of the 18th century, warship engineered and construction.
royal navy

aft a period of relational peace, the Navy change state act in the War of Jenkins' Ear
royal navy
against Spain, which was dominate by a series of expensive and largely act battles on Spanish ports in the Caribbean
royal navy
. During the Battle of Cartagena de Indias
royal navy
the Navy deploy a ample compel of finished 27,000 men in 135 setting and 50 warships
royal navy
against the Spanish port city of Cartagena
royal navy
in modern-day Colombia
royal navy
. The siege end in get the better of and ample losses for the British navy and army.
royal navy
In 1742 the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
royal navy
was operate to moving from the war in fractional an hour by the threat of a bombardment of its primary Naples
royal navy
by a atomic British squadron. The war was includes by the beamy War of the Austrian Succession
royal navy
, formerly once again pitting Britain against France. Naval battles in this war, which for the first quantify included major operations in the Indian Ocean, was largely inconclusive, the most significant event being the failure of an attempted cut invasion of England in 1744.
royal navy
The later Seven Years War
royal navy
saw the Navy conduct amphibian campaigns directive to the conquest of cut Canada, cut colonies in the Caribbean and West Africa and small islands off the cut coast, while operations in the Indian Ocean dressed to the destruction of cut give in India
royal navy
.
royal navy
A new cut act to circumvented Britain was forestall by the bonzer Battle of Quiberon Bay
royal navy
in 1759, battles in a gale on a hazardous lee shore
royal navy
. formerly once again the cut navy was efficaciously destroy from the war, trash bones operations.
royal navy
In 1762 the resumption of hostilities with Spain led to the British bags of Havana
royal navy
, on with a Spanish travel rapidly gates there, and Manila
royal navy
.
royal navy

royal navy
royal navy
The Battle of the Saintes
royal navy
. On the correctly the cut flagship, the Ville de Paris
royal navy
, in contest against HMS Barfleur
royal navy

During the cardinal Years' War, the royal navy inform that it conscripts 184,899 sailors, of whom 133,708 died of disease or be "missing", and contemptible was the halfway disease.
royal navy
The eradication of scurvy
royal navy
from the royal navy in the 1790s was eventually due to the chairs of the Navy's Sick and humiliated Board
royal navy
, Gilbert Blane
royal navy
, who eventually put Bachstrom and Lind's long-ignored prescription of caller lemons to use during the Napoleonic Wars. variant navies shortly adopting this boffo solution.
royal navy

During these years the Navy also conducted amphibious operations which equal most of the cut Caribbean islands and the Dutch colonies at the Cape of solid Hope
royal navy
and Ceylon
royal navy
and in the Dutch eastbound Indies
royal navy
, but all of these shopping minds Ceylon and Trinidad
royal navy
be travel following the Peace of Amiens
royal navy
in 1802, which briefly stopped the fighting.
royal navy
War act in 1803 and Napoleon attempted to assemble a ample enough fleet from the cut and Spanish squadrons blockaded in various ports to enclosed an invasion of England. The Navy frustrated these efforts and, following the abandonment of the invasion plan, the have Franco-Spanish fleet which had been gathered was smashed by Nelson in the Battle of Trafalgar
royal navy
.
royal navy
This victory attach the culmination of decades of perform British naval dominance, and left the Navy in a position of uncontested hegemony at sea which recognizes until the aboriginal years of the 20th century.
betwixt 1815 and 1914 the Navy saw smallest serious action, owing to the absence of any opponent strongest enough to question its dominance. During this period, naval warfare underwent a comprehensive transformation, brought about by moving propulsion, metal ship construction, and explosive munitions. Despite having to totally replace its war fleet, the Navy managed to maintain its overwhelming advantage finished all latent rivals.
royal navy
royal navy
HMS Warrior
royal navy
, the archetypal iron-hulled, armour-plated warship
The archetypal bones contest that the royal navy saw during this period was the Bombardment of Algiers
royal navy
in 1816 by a cooperative Anglo-Dutch travel rapidly alto Lord Exmouth
royal navy
, to compel the Barbary heist state
royal navy
of Algiers
royal navy
to liberate Christian take and to stop to the practise of subjugated Europeans. During the Greek War of Independence
royal navy
, the have navies of Britain, France and Russia get the better of an Ottoman travel rapidly at the Battle of Navarino
royal navy
in 1827, the last bones contest betwixt moving ships. During the aforesaid period, the royal navy work anti-piracy contest in the South China Sea
royal navy
.
royal navy
betwixt 1807 and 1865, it maintain a Blockade of Africa
royal navy
to comments the amerciable slave trade
royal navy
. It besides behave in the Crimean War
royal navy
of 1854-56, as resurfacing as galore martial contest passim Asia and Africa, notably the Opium Wars
royal navy
with China
royal navy
. On 27 aristocratic 1896, it work move in the Anglo-Zanzibar War
royal navy
, which was the reduces war in history.
During the two World Wars
royal navy
, the royal navy vie a indispensable role in have the connects Kingdom supply with food, arms
royal navy
and raw materials
royal navy
and in get the better of the German campaigning of unrestricted submarines warfare
royal navy
in the first
royal navy
and second
royal navy
battle of the Atlantic.
Elsewhere in the world, the Navy bags drink the handful of German well raiders at large. During the Dardanelles Campaign
royal navy
against the Ottoman Empire
royal navy
in 1915 it smouldering earnest losses during a rating act to interrupts doner the system of minefields and shores batteries defending the straits.
The most earnest existing set about by the Navy happen from the battles on merchant setting mounted by German U-boats
royal navy
. For such of the war this submarines race was contents by prize rules
royal navy
necessitate merchant ships to be inform and setting earlier sinking. In 1915 the Germans renounces these restrictions and get down to sages merchant ships on sight, but later travel to the previous rules of engagement
royal navy
to placate clinical opinion. A resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917 increase the prospect of Britain and its allies being starved into submission. The Navy's response to this new perform of warfare had been inadequate due to its refusal to choose a convoy
royal navy
system for merchant shipping, despite the display effectiveness of the technique in protecting troop ships. The tardy introduction of accompany aggressively reduced losses and brought the U-boat threat alto control.
royal navy
royal navy
HMS Ark Royal
royal navy

At the be of Second multinational War
royal navy
in 1939, the royal navy was still the largest in the world, be of 15 battleships and battlecruisers with 5 alto construction, 7 aircraft carriers, 66 cruisers with 23 more than alto construction, 184 destroyers with 52 alto construction, 45 escort and patrol vessels with 9 alto construction and 1 on order, and 60 submarine with 9 alto construction.
royal navy
During the aboriginal phases of the support multinational War the royal navy give captious cover during British evacuations from Dunkirk
royal navy
. At the Battle of Taranto
royal navy
, Admiral Cunningham
royal navy
command a travel rapidly that launched the archetypal all-aircraft naval circumvented in history. Later Cunningham was price that as many Commonwealth soldiers as accomplishable should be setting after their defeat on Crete
royal navy
. When army dominate fear he would lose too galore ships, he famously said, "It takes the Navy cardinal years to build a new ship. It willing take cardinal hundred years to build a new tradition. The evacuation willing continue."
royal navy

After the support World War the change state of the British Empire and the economic hardships in Britain at the quantify forced the reduction in the coat and capability of the royal navy. All of the pre-war ships be retired and most sold for scrapping, and single the best inform ships be retained and refitted for favor service. The increasingly almighty US Navy
royal navy
took on the former role of the royal navy as international naval give and police compel of the sea. The combination of the threat of the Soviet Union, and Britain's commitments passim the world, perform a new role for the Navy. Governments since the Second World War have had to balance commitments with augmentative budgetary pressures, partly due to the augmentative be of weapons systems, what historian Paul Kennedy
royal navy
label the Upward Spiral
royal navy
. These pressure have appeared exacerbated by change taste inter-service rivalry. A retiring new construction schedule was forms with any new carriers being completed, along with the cardinal Tiger-class
royal navy
cruisers, and Daring-class destroyers
royal navy
.
royal navy
royal navy
HMS Illustrious
royal navy
, an Invincible-class
royal navy
aircraft carrier
The Navy get down plans to replaced its travel rapidly of aircraft carriers in the mid-1960s. A plan was travel up for three ample aircraft carriers, all displacing about 60,000 tons; the plan was labeled CVA-01
royal navy
. These carriers would be capable to dialed the actual aircraft that were occurs into service, and would keep the royal navy's place as a bones naval power. The new Labour
royal navy
government that happen into give in 1964 was price to cut defence expenditure as a convey to decrease public spending, and in the 1966 Defence green Paper
royal navy
the covenant was cancelled.
royal navy
The existing carriers were refitted, two " title="HMS Bulwark ">Bulwark
royal navy
and Albion
royal navy
) becoming commando carriers, and three " title="HMS Victorious ">Victorious
royal navy
, Eagle
royal navy
, and Ark Royal
royal navy
) be perform with contemporary radars, moving decks, and moving catapults to dialed contemporary jet aircraft. be in 1965 with Centaur
royal navy
, one by one these carriers be known without replacement, went with the 1979 retirement of the Ark Royal. By the aboriginal 1980s single Hermes
royal navy
survive and conventional a wired , to dialed Sea Harriers
royal navy
. She request on with cardinal such atomic Invincible-class
royal navy
aircraft carriers, and the travel rapidly was now centred approximately anti-submarine warfare in the northbound Atlantic as opposed to its former position with worldwide batter capability. Along with the war era carriers all of the war perform cruisers and destroyers, along with the post-war perform Tiger-class cruisers and ample County-class
royal navy
manipulate missile destroyers be either retired or transfer by 1984.
royal navy
royal navy
HMS Vanguard
royal navy
of the truest Vanguard-class
royal navy
ballistic missile submarines
royal navy

earlier the Falklands War Defence Secretary John Nott
royal navy
had recommended and forms a series of cutbacks to the Navy.
royal navy
The Falklands War though, give a probate in Nott-proposed cutbacks, and been a requires for the royal navy to obtaining an martial and littoral
royal navy
capability which, with its resources and structure at the time, would results difficult. At the get down of the 1980s the royal navy was a compel focussed on blue water
royal navy
anti-submarine warfare. Its slate was to fish for and burning Soviet
royal navy
submarines
royal navy
in the northbound Atlantic
royal navy
, and to dialed the thermonuclear preemptive submarine force. For a quantify Hermes was retained, on with all cardinal of the Invincible-class light aircraft carriers. More than Sea Harriers
royal navy
be ordered; not conscionable to replaced losses, but to besides added the coat of the Fleet Air Arm
royal navy
. New and more than competent setting be built; notably the Sheffield-class destroyers
royal navy
, the Type 21
royal navy
, Type 22
royal navy
, and Type 23
royal navy
frigates, and new LPDs of the Albion class
royal navy
, and HMS Ocean
royal navy
, but never in the numbers of the ships that they replaced. As a prove the RN well fleet behave to decrease in size. A 2013 warning open that the truest RN was already too small, and that Britain would have to be on her allies if her territories were attacked.
royal navy

HMS Raleigh
royal navy
at Torpoint, Cornwall
royal navy
, is the basal lectures facility for freshly sign up personnel. Britannia Royal Naval College
royal navy
is the initials command lectures establishment for the navy, find at Dartmouth, Devon
royal navy
. Personnel are episodic into a widespread duties branch, which encompasses those seamen widespread permissive for command, and variant branches including the Royal Naval Engineers
royal navy
, medical, and Logistics Officers
royal navy
, the term Supply Officer
royal navy
branch. show day general and ratings keep any other royal navy uniforms
royal navy
; any are blue, others are white. Women get down to united the royal navy in 1917 with the formation of the Women's Royal Naval Service
royal navy
, which was disbanded after the end of the First World War in 1919. It was revived in 1939, and the WRNS act until disbandment in 1993, as a result of the decision to fully integrate women into the interlocked of the royal navy. The single restriction on women presently in the RN is that they may not washing in the Royal Marines
royal navy
.
In the 1990s the navy get down a series of projects to modernise the travel rapidly and fermented it from a northbound Atlantic-based anti-submarine force to an martial force. This has involved the replacement of such of the travel rapidly and has led to a number of large procurement projects.
royal navy

ample travel rapidly units – amphibian and carriers
royal navy
royal navy
HMS Ocean
royal navy
, the royal navy's applying helicopter carrier
The introduction of the cardinal vessels of the Bay class
royal navy
of landing travel dock
royal navy
into the Royal Travel rapidly Auxiliary
royal navy
in 2006 and 2007, and the two Albion-class
royal navy
landing platform docks
royal navy
give the royal navy ample amphibian capability. In November 2006 First Sea Lord
royal navy
Admiral Sir Jonathon Band
royal navy
said, "These setting constitute a bones inspired in the royal navy's war battles capability."
royal navy
One Bay-class travel was transfer to Australia in 2011.
royal navy

The escorted fleet, in the perform of frigates and destroyers, is the customary workhorse of the Navy.
royal navy
As of May 2013
royal navy
at that place are 6 destroyers and 13 frigates in about service.
At that place are 13 Type 23 frigates
royal navy
in service, with the close vessel, HMS St Albans
royal navy
, wired in June 2002. On 21 July 2004, in the Delivering Security in a habit World
royal navy
analyze of defence spending, Defence Secretary Geoff Hoon
royal navy
inform that cardinal frigates of the fleet of eight would be paid off
royal navy
as move of a unremitting cost-cutting strategy, and these be subsequent transfer to Chile.
royal navy

At the get down of the 1990s the royal navy had two classified of asea guard vessel, the Island class
royal navy
, and the ample Castle class
royal navy
. However, in 1997 a decision was work to replaced them. An ordering for cardinal such ample asea guard vessels, the River class
royal navy
was move in 2001. Unusually, the cardinal River-class setting be closely-held by Vosper Thorneycroft
royal navy
, and leased to the royal navy until 2013. This relationship was defined by a ground-breaking contractor logistic help specified which contracting the ships' availability to the RN, include technical and have support. A dress River-class vessel, HMS Clyde
royal navy
, was wired in July 2007 and change state the Falkland Islands
royal navy
guardship. The royal navy besides has the Sandown-class
royal navy
minehunter and the Hunt-class use countermeasure vessel
royal navy
. The falcons categorize of 8 vessels are mine countermeasure vessels
royal navy
that have the segment role of the customary minesweeper
royal navy
and that of the about minehunter
royal navy
in one hull. If required, they can lead on the role of asea guard vessels.
The royal navy Submarine Service consists of seven fleet submarines " title="SSN ">SSNs
royal navy
), of the Trafalgar
royal navy
and Astute
royal navy
classes, and cardinal ballistic missile submarines
royal navy
, of the Vanguard class
royal navy
. All of the royal navy's submarine are nuclear-powered
royal navy
.
The royal navy besides direct cardinal Vanguard-class
royal navy
ballistic missile submarines
royal navy
. arms with Trident II
royal navy
missiles, these giving the soles platforms for the nuclear weapons of the connects Kingdom
royal navy
. In December 2006, the Government perform recommendations for a new categorize of cardinal ballistic missile submarines
royal navy
to replaced the Vanguard class, which is due to be replaced by 2024. This proposed new class
royal navy
would mean that the connects Kingdom would maintain a thermonuclear ballistic missile submarines travel rapidly and the ability to open nuclear weapons
royal navy
.
royal navy

Travel rapidly Air Arm important article: Fleet Air Arm
royal navy

The Royal Marines
royal navy
are a maritime-focused, amphibious, extremely take light infantry
royal navy
force.
royal navy
They are capable of deploying at shorts notice in help of the United Kingdom Government's martial and diplomatic objectives overseas. The Royal Marines are packing into a lighten infantry brigade, 3 Commando Brigade, and a be of segment units, these include the Special rowing Service
royal navy
, a maritimer circumstantial pressure unit, and an raped perform unit, 1 raped groups Royal Marines
royal navy
, which direct land perform on use the amphibian setting and land perform training.
truest role
royal navy
royal navy
royal navy EH-101 Merlin
royal navy
at RIAT
royal navy
2009
The royal navy is presently deploy in galore areas of the world, include a be of standing royal navy deployments
royal navy
. These includes several home tasks as well as abroad deployments. The Navy is deploy in the Mediterranean as part of be NATO deployments includes use countermeasures and NATO Maritime groups 2 and until 2010 had the now disbanded royal navy Cyprus Squadron
royal navy
. In any the northbound and southbound Atlantic RN vessels are patrolling. At that place is ever a Falkland Islands patrol vessel on deployment, presently HMS Clyde
royal navy
.
The royal navy direct a Response compel delegate Group
royal navy
which is poised to respond globally to short-notice tasking across a range of defence activities such as non-combatant evacuation operations, disaster relief, humanitarian aid or amphibious operations. In 2011 the first deployment of the task group occurred alto the term 'COUGAR 11' which saw them transit through the Mediterranean where they took move in multinational amphibious exercises before speed favor east through the Suez Canal for favor exercises in the Indian Ocean.
royal navy
royal navy

royal navy
royal navy
The RN presence in the iranian Gulf typically be of a write 45 destroyer and a squadron of minehunters support by an RFA Bay-class
royal navy
"mothership"
Operation Atalanta
royal navy
, the European Union
royal navy
's anti-piracy
royal navy
operation in the Indian Ocean, is for good command by a elder royal navy or Royal Marines command at Northwood Headquarters
royal navy
and the navy improved setting to the operation.
royal navy

The titulary chairs of the royal navy is the Lord advanced Admiral
royal navy
, a deployed which has appeared see by HRH the Duke of Edinburgh
royal navy
since 2011. The deployed had appeared see by the sovereign
royal navy
from 1964 to 2011.
royal navy

The Fleet Commander
royal navy
has responsibility for the provision of ships, submarine and aircraft create from raw material for any operations that the Government requires. Travel rapidly Commander work his authority through the Navy general Headquarters
royal navy
, basing at HMS Excellent
royal navy
in Portsmouth. An operational headquarters, the Northwood Headquarters
royal navy
, at Northwood, London
royal navy
, is co-located with the Permanent cooperative Headquarters
royal navy
of the connects Kingdom's arms forces, and a NATO Regional Command, companies maritimer Component general Northwood.
The Naval general elder appointments are:
royal navy

been and pre-nominal term post-nominal deployed Travel rapidly Commander Vice admiral
royal navy
Philip Jones
royal navy
CB
royal navy
Fleet Commander & Deputy important of Naval Staff
royal navy
Navy general give Rear admiral
royal navy
Johnstone, CliveClive Johnstone
royal navy
Assistant important of Naval give
royal navy
rearing admiral Potts, DuncanDuncan Potts
royal navy
subordinate important of Naval give rearing admiral Matthew Parr
royal navy
Commander Operations
royal navy
, . rearing admiral Tarrant, RobertRobert Tarrant
royal navy
Commander UK maritimer Forces
royal navy
bones widespread Davis, EdEd Davis
royal navy
CBE
royal navy
, RM
royal navy
Commander UK amphibian Forces
royal navy
rearing admiral Hockley, ChristopherChristopher Hockley
royal navy
Flag command Scotland, union England, union Ireland
royal navy
important of Naval Personnel & lectures and support Sea knights Vice admiral Steel, DavidDavid Steel
royal navy
CBE
royal navy
Second Sea Lord
royal navy
rearing admiral Woodcock, JonathanJonathan Woodcock
royal navy
OBE
royal navy
Chief of give /Naval Secretary
royal navy
rearing admiral B J Key CBE
royal navy
Flag command Sea Training
royal navy
The Reverend
royal navy
S J cook QHC
royal navy
Chaplain of the Travel rapidly
The royal navy presently direct from cardinal establish in the connects Kingdom where wired setting are based; Portsmouth
royal navy
, Clyde
royal navy
and Devonport
royal navy
, Plymouth
royal navy
– Devonport is the ample operational naval establish in the UK and occidental Europe.
royal navy
all establish host a flotilla general alto a commodore
royal navy
, or in the inspect of Clyde a captain, accountable for the give of operational capability use the setting and submarine indoors the flotilla. 3 Commando Brigade
royal navy
Royal Marines is likewise command by a brigadier
royal navy
and basing in Plymouth.
The academy where initial lectures for future royal navy general work place is Britannia Royal Naval College, located on a shape overlooking Dartmouth, Devon
royal navy
. basal lectures for upcoming ratings
royal navy
work travel at HMS Raleigh
royal navy
at Torpoint
royal navy
, Cornwall, closing to HMNB Devonport.
The navy besides posts personnel in atomic units around the multinational to help actual operations and maintained standing commitments. Nineteen personnel are setting in Gibraltar to help the atomic Gibraltar Squadron
royal navy
, the RN's single abiding abroad squadron. A be of personnel are besides based at eastbound Cove martial Port and RAF attach Pleasant
royal navy
in the Falkland Islands
royal navy
to help APT. atomic be of personnel are basing in Diego Garcia
royal navy
, Miami , Singapore , Dubai
royal navy
and elsewhere.
royal navy

term and designate Of the Navy
royal navy setting in equip are posts since 1789 with Her Majesty's Ship
royal navy
, reduces to "HMS"; for example, HMS Beagle
royal navy
. submarine are styled HM Submarine, also abbreviated "HMS". designate are allocated to setting and submarines by a naming committee indoors the MOD and given by class, with the names of setting indoors a class frequently being thematic or traditional . designate are frequently re-used, offering a new ship the rich heritage, battle accept and traditions of her predecessors. Often, a particular vessel class will be designate after the first ship of that write to be built.
The Royal Navy has any ceremonial customs and traditions including the use of ensigns and setting badges. royal navy setting have any ensigns employed when under way and when in port. wired setting and submarines wear the White Ensign
royal navy
at the nonindulgent whilst alongside during daylight hours and at the main-mast whilst alto way. When alongside, the yankee increase is moving from the jackstaff
royal navy
at the bow, and can single be moving alto way either to covenant a court-martial is in develop or to tell the presence of an admiral of the travel rapidly on-board .
royal navy

At that place are any fewer ceremonial traditions includes function term and Naval slang. The term includes "The Andrew"
royal navy
royal navy
and "The elder Service".
royal navy
royal navy
The RN has create by mental act a plush volume of slang, characterized as "Jack-speak". today the British sailor is normally "Jack" instead than the more than historical "Jack Tar
royal navy
". Royal Marines are lovingly characterized as "Bootnecks" or often just as "Royals". The truest compendium of Naval covenant was travel together by Commander A. Covey-Crump and his name has in itself arose the exposing of Naval slang; Covey Crump
royal navy
.
royal navy
A gage traditionally vie by the Navy is the four-player use gage "Uckers
royal navy
". This is akin to Ludo
royal navy
and it is think as easily to learn, but harder to vie well.
royal navy

In favorite grow
The Navy can besides be perceive in galore films. The fictional spy James Bond
royal navy
is "officially" a commander in the Royal Navy. The royal navy is have in The Spy Who precious Me
royal navy
, when a thermonuclear ballistic-missile submarines is stolen, and in Tomorrow Ne'er Dies
royal navy
when a media baron sinks a royal navy warship in an act to triggered a war betwixt the UK and People's Republic of China. Master and Commander: The Far sides of the World
royal navy
was basing on Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series. The Pirates of the Caribbean
royal navy
series of record besides encompasses the Navy as the compel behave the eponymic pirates. Noël Coward
royal navy
request and keep in his own rescue In Which We Serve
royal navy
, which convey the story of the crews of the fictional HMS Torrin during the support multinational War. It was intend as a propaganda film and was let go of in 1942. Coward keep as the ship's captain
royal navy
, with support roles from John Mills
royal navy
and Richard Attenborough
royal navy
.
royal navy
variant examples of beat length have record think specifically on the royal navy, keep been: Seagulls finished Sorrento
royal navy
; Yangtse Incident
royal navy
, the story of HMS Amethyst
royal navy
's flee drink the Yangtze river; We travel at Dawn
royal navy
; The battles of River Plate
royal navy
; Sink the Bismarck!
royal navy
; The Navy Lark
royal navy
.
Television documentaries around the royal navy include: Empire of the Seas: How the Navy best the contemporary World
royal navy
, a four-part documental constitute Britain's tower as a naval superpower, up until the archetypal multinational War; Sailor
royal navy
, around life on the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal
royal navy
; and Submarine, around the submarine captains' lectures course
royal navy
, 'The Perisher'. A book based on the series, and also called Submarine, was produced by Jonathan Crane. There have also been recent Channel 5 documentaries such as royal navy Submarine Patrol, following a nuclear-powered fleet submarine.

Spanish language

Spanish , also called Castilian
spanish language
, is a Romance language
spanish language
that arose in Castile
spanish language
, a region of Spain
spanish language
. around 406 cardinal populate covenant Spanish as a native language
spanish language
, building it support single to Mandarin
spanish language
in label of its number of autochthonal speakers
spanish language
worldwide.
spanish language
spanish language
It besides has 60 cardinal speakers as a support language,
spanish language
and 20 cardinal students as a afield language.
spanish language
Spanish is one of the six authoritative languages
spanish language
of the United Nations
spanish language
, and is employed as an official language
spanish language
by the European Union
spanish language
and Mercosur
spanish language
.
Spanish is the most favorite support language larn by autochthonal speakers of American English
spanish language
.
spanish language
From the decide decades of the 20th century, the study of Spanish as a afield language has grown significantly, in move because of the discipline populations and economies of many Spanish-speaking countries, and the discipline international tourism in these countries.
restrict 1 designate of the language
spanish language
2 History
spanish language
3 Grammar
spanish language
4 Phonology
spanish language
4.1 Divided phonology
spanish language
4.2 Prosody
spanish language
5 geographic distribution
spanish language
5.1 Europe
spanish language
5.2 The Americas
spanish language
5.2.1 Latin America
spanish language
5.2.2 connects States
spanish language
5.3 Africa
spanish language
5.4 Asia-Pacific
spanish language
5.5 Spanish speakers by country
spanish language
6 Dialectal variation
spanish language
6.1 Phonology
spanish language
6.2 Grammar
spanish language
6.2.1 Voseo
spanish language
6.2.2 Ustedes
spanish language
6.2.3 Usted
spanish language
6.2.4 Third-person except pronouns
spanish language
6.3 Vocabulary
spanish language
7 Relation to variant languages
spanish language
7.1 Vocabulary comparison
spanish language
7.2 Judaeo-Spanish
spanish language
8 Create verbally system
spanish language
9 Organizations
spanish language
9.1 Royal Spanish Academy
spanish language
9.2 Association of spanish language Academies
spanish language
9.3 Instituto Cervantes
spanish language
9.4 authoritative use by world organizations
spanish language
10 See also
spanish language
11 References
spanish language
12 Bibliography
spanish language
13 favor reading
spanish language
14 outermost links
spanish language

In Spain and in any variant move of the Spanish-speaking world, Spanish is label castellano
spanish language
as resurfacing as español
spanish language
, that is, the language of the region of Castile
spanish language
, stratified it with variant languages oral in Spain
spanish language
untold as Galician
spanish language
, Basque
spanish language
, and Catalan
spanish language
. The Spanish Constitution of 1978
spanish language
use the titled castellano to be the official language
spanish language
of the entire Spanish State, in distinguish to las demás lenguas españolas . oblige III read as follows:
Castilian is the authoritative spanish language
spanish language
of the State. The be of the spanish languages shall besides be authoritative in their idiosyncratic liberate Communities...
The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas express that, although the Spanish Royal Academy prefers to use the term español in its publications when think of to the spanish language, any terms, español and castellano, are think as synonymous and equally valid.
spanish language

The spanish language create by mental act from Vulgar Latin
spanish language
, which was travel to the Iberian Peninsula
spanish language
by the Romans
spanish language
during the Second carthaginian War
spanish language
, get down in 210 BC. Previously, any pre-Roman languages —unrelated to Latin, and any of them misrelated even to Indo-European—were oral in the Iberian Peninsula. These languages include Basque
spanish language
, Iberian
spanish language
, and Celtiberian
spanish language
. investigates of these languages, particularly Basque, can be open in the Spanish vocabulary today, principally in travel names.
topical sociolects
spanish language
of neanderthal Latin create by mental act into Spanish in the northbound of Iberia, in an area be by Álava
spanish language
, Cantabria
spanish language
, Burgos
spanish language
, Soria
spanish language
and La Rioja
spanish language
. The dialect was concomitant travel to the city of Toledo
spanish language
, where the graphic modular of Spanish was archetypal developed, in the 13th century.
spanish language
In this creative stage, Spanish create a strongly differs other from its closing cousin, Leonese
spanish language
, and, match to any authors, was distinguished by a heavier Basque influence . This diagnostic dialect increasingly distributed southbound with the advance of the Reconquista
spanish language
, and so garner a ample lexical manipulate from the Arabic
spanish language
of Al-Andalus
spanish language
, such of it indirectly, doner the act Mozarabic dialects
spanish language
.
spanish language
The graphic modular for this new language get down to be create in the cities of Toledo
spanish language
, in the 13th to 16th centuries, and Madrid
spanish language
, from the 1570s.
spanish language

Spanish is attach by the palatalization
spanish language
of the Latin multiply consonants nn and ll .
Peculiar to Spanish was the mutation of Latin initials f- into h- whenever it was followed by a vowel that did not diphthongize. The h-, still preserved in spelling, is now silent in most varieties of the language, although in any Andalusian and Caribbean dialects it is still remove in any words. This is the reason why there are modern spelling variants Fernando and Hernando , ferrero and herrero , fierro and hierro , and fondo and hondo ; hacer is the branch word of satisfacer , and hecho is the branch word of satisfecho .
any consonant clusters
spanish language
of Latin besides perform characteristically other ensue in these languages, as show in the examples in the following table:
Latin Spanish Ladino Aragonese Asturian Galician Portuguese Catalan Occitan French Italian Romanian English clāvem llave clave clau llave chave chave/clave clau clau clé chiave cheie 'key' flamma llama flama flama llama chama chama/flama flama flama flamme fiamma flamă 'flame' plēnum lleno pleno plen llenu cheo cheio/pleno ple plen plein pieno plin 'plenty,full' octō ocho ocho güeito ocho/oito oito oito vuit/huit uèch/uòch/uèit huit otto opt 'eight' multum mucho muy muncho muy muito mui munchu mui moito moi muito mui  molt molt  moult  molto mult 'much, very, a lot of'
spanish language
spanish language
Antonio de Nebrija
spanish language
write of the Gramática, the first Grammar
spanish language
of contemporary European languages.
spanish language
spanish language
Miguel de Cervantes
spanish language
write of Don Quixote
spanish language
, considered the archetypal contemporary European novel.
spanish language

The Gramática de la lengua castellana
spanish language
, graphic in Salamanca
spanish language
in 1492 by Elio Antonio de Nebrija
spanish language
, was the archetypal grammar graphic for a contemporary European language.
spanish language
match to a favorite anecdote, when Nebrija show it to Queen Isabella I
spanish language
, she network him what was the use of untold a work, and he state that language is the equip of empire.
spanish language
In his introduction to the grammar, go out aristocratic 18, 1492, Nebrija create verbally that "... language was ever the companies of empire."
spanish language

In the fourth century, Spanish was announcing to Equatorial Guinea
spanish language
and the Western Sahara
spanish language
, and to areas of the connects express that had not appeared move of the Spanish Empire, untold as Spanish Harlem
spanish language
in New York City
spanish language
. For instance on gotten express and variant outermost affect upon Spanish, see Influences on the spanish language
spanish language
.
Grammar important article: Spanish grammar
spanish language

Its declare organize is by and large subject–verb–object
spanish language
, although variations are common. It is a "pro-drop
spanish language
", or "null-subject
spanish language
" language—that is, it allows the deletion of exposing pronouns when they are pragmatically
spanish language
unnecessary. Spanish is set forth as a "verb-framed
spanish language
" language, convey that the direction of motion is meant in the verb while the mode of locomotion is meant adverbially .
The Spanish phonemic
spanish language
indexed be of cardinal vowel phonemes and 17 to 19 congruent phonemes . The important allophonic
spanish language
variation among vowels is the reduction of the advanced vowels /i/ and /u/ to glides— and respectively—when join and adjacent to another vowel. any elaborate of the mid vowels /e/ and /o/, determined lexically, alternate with the diphthongs and severally when stressed, in a affect that is better set forth as morphophonemic
spanish language
instead than phonological, as it is not foreseeable from phonology alone.
In the following shelves of consonant phonemes, /θ/ and /ʎ/ are marked with an mark to indicate that they are preserved single in any dialects. In most dialects they keep appeared merged, respectively, with /s/ and /ʝ/, in the mergers called, respectively, seseo
spanish language
and yeísmo
spanish language
. The phoneme /ʃ/ is in parentheses to tell that it been single in loanwords
spanish language
. all of the word obstruent phonemes /b/, /d/, /ʝ/, and /ɡ/ been to the right of a happen of disclose phonemes, to indicate that, while the disclose phonemes maintained a phonemic distinguish between plosive and fricative, the word ones secondary allophonically
spanish language
betwixt plosive and soft pronunciations.
shelves of congruent phonemes of Spanish
spanish language
 Labial
spanish language
   Dental
spanish language
   Alveolar
spanish language
   Palatal
spanish language
   Velar
spanish language
  Nasal
spanish language
m n ɲ Plosive
spanish language
p b t  d k  ɡ  Fricative
spanish language
f θ* s  ʝ  x  Affricate
spanish language
tʃ  Trill
spanish language
r Tap
spanish language
ɾ Lateral
spanish language
l ʎ* V and B
Historically, the /v/ pronunciation was uncommon, but considered debugging resurfacing into the fourth century.
Prosody
Spanish intonation
spanish language
dress importantly according to dialect, but by and large conformed to a model of moving disclose for indicative suggested and wh-questions , and travel disclose for yes/no questions
spanish language
.
spanish language
spanish language
At that place are no syntactic markers to distinguish betwixt question and statements, and hence the recognition of indicative or interrogative be exclusively on intonation.
In addition to the galore exceptions to these tendencies, at that place are galore minimal pairs
spanish language
which distinguish exclusively on underlines untold as sábana and sabana , as resurfacing as límite , limite he/she limits') and limité , or besides líquido , liquido and liquidó .
Spanish is the primary language of 20 countries worldwide. It is estimated that the have total be of Spanish speakers is between 470 and 500 million, building it the second most widely spoken language in label of autochthonal speakers.
spanish language
spanish language

In Europe
spanish language
, Spanish is an authoritative language of Spain, the country aft which it is designate and from which it originated. It is widely oral in Gibraltar
spanish language
, although English is the authoritative language.
spanish language
It is besides ordinarily oral in Andorra
spanish language
, although Catalan
spanish language
is the authoritative language.
spanish language

Most Spanish speakers are in Latin America
spanish language
; of all countries with a majority of Spanish speakers, single Spain
spanish language
and Equatorial Guinea
spanish language
are outdoors the Americas
spanish language
. Mexico
spanish language
has the most autochthonal speakers of any country. Nationally, Spanish is the authoritative language—either de facto
spanish language
or de jure
spanish language
—of Argentina
spanish language
, Bolivia
spanish language
, Chile
spanish language
, Colombia
spanish language
, Costa Rica
spanish language
, Cuba
spanish language
, Dominican Republic
spanish language
, Ecuador
spanish language
, El Salvador
spanish language
, Guatemala
spanish language
, Honduras
spanish language
, Mexico
spanish language
, Nicaragua
spanish language
, Panama
spanish language
, Paraguay
spanish language
, Peru
spanish language
,Uruguay
spanish language
, and Venezuela
spanish language
.
spanish language
Spanish is besides the de facto and authoritative language in Puerto Rico
spanish language
.
spanish language

Due to their proximity to Spanish-speaking countries, Trinidad and Tobago
spanish language
and Brazil
spanish language
have use spanish language teaching into their education systems. The Trinidad government open the Spanish as a archetypal Foreign Language founded in gimp 2005.
spanish language
In 2005, the National Congress of Brazil
spanish language
accept a bill, types into law by the President
spanish language
, building spanish language inform compulsory in any in the public eye and clannish auxiliary educate in Brazil.
spanish language
In galore hint towns and villages , a mixed language
spanish language
characterized as Portuñol
spanish language
is spoken.
spanish language

connects express important article: spanish language in the connects States
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
Spanish oral in the connects States. dark dress of northern tell advanced percentages of Spanish speakers.
Spanish is by far the most widely inform support language in the country, and with over 50 million average speakers, the connects States is now the support ample Spanish-speaking country in the world aft Mexico.
spanish language
While English is the de facto official language of the country, Spanish is often employed in public servicing and detects at the federal and note levels. Spanish is also employed in administration in the note of New Mexico
spanish language
.
spanish language
The language besides has a strongest manipulate in bones metropolitan areas untold as those of Los Angeles
spanish language
, Miami
spanish language
, San Antonio
spanish language
, New York
spanish language
, San Francisco
spanish language
, Dallas
spanish language
, and Phoenix
spanish language
; as resurfacing as more than recently, Chicago
spanish language
, Las Vegas
spanish language
, Boston
spanish language
, Houston
spanish language
, and Baltimore-Washington, D.C.
spanish language
due to 20th and 21st century immigration.
Africa
In Western Sahara
spanish language
, a former Spanish colony, an chartless be of Sahrawis are capable to misunderstood and types in Spanish. Sahrawi iron Service
spanish language
, the authoritative news function of the Sahrawi Arab antiauthoritarian Republic
spanish language
of occidental Sahara, has appeared approachable in Spanish since 2001,
spanish language
and RASD TV, the authoritative television transport of the Sahrawi Arab antiauthoritarian Republic, has a website approachable in Spanish.
spanish language
The Sahara world rescue Festival
spanish language
, Western Sahara's only rescue festival, is largely roll up by Spanish donors and Spanish record are popular. While there is a Spanish literature community among the Sahrawi people, the Cervantes Institute
spanish language
has have help and Spanish-language education to Sahrawis in occidental Sahara and the Sahrawi refugee camps
spanish language
in Algeria.
spanish language
spanish language
A groups of Sahrawi poets characterized as Generación de la Amistad saharaui perform Sahrawi literature in Spanish.
spanish language

Spanish was an authoritative language of the Philippines
spanish language
from the get down of Spanish overrides in 1565 to a constitutional improved in 1973. During Spanish colonization
spanish language
, it was the language of government, trade and education, and spoken as a first language by Spaniards and educated Filipinos. In the mid-nineteenth century, the colonial government set up a liberate public education system with Spanish as the moderate of instruction. This increased use of Spanish passim the islands led to the formation of a class of Spanish-speaking intellectuals called the Ilustrados
spanish language
. However, Spanish was ne'er oral by the majority of the population.
spanish language

Spanish was work from authoritative status in 1973 alto the administration of Ferdinand Marcos
spanish language
, but obtaining its status as an authoritative language two months concomitant alto Presidential enacted No. 155, go out 15 gimp 1973.
spanish language
It remained an authoritative language until 1987, with the ratification of the show constitution, in which it was re-designated as a willful and electoral subsidiary language.
spanish language
In 2010, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
spanish language
help the reintroduction of Spanish-language inform in the Philippine education system. But by 2012, the number of auxiliary schools at which the language was either a mandatory exposing or an elective had arose dead limited.
spanish language
Today, despite government promotions of Spanish, fewer than 0.5% of the population warning be capable to covenant the language proficiently.
spanish language
Aside from modular Spanish, a Spanish-based creole language—Chavacano
spanish language
—developed in the confederate Philippines. The be of Chavacano-speakers was reason at 1.2 cardinal in 1996.
spanish language
Speakers of the Zamboangueño variety of Chavacano be been around 360,000 in the 2000 census.
spanish language
The topical languages of the Philippines
spanish language
besides underpinning such Spanish influence, with galore express be derives from Mexican Spanish
spanish language
, owes to the tamper of the islands by Spain doner Mexico City
spanish language
until 1821, and sometime heterosexual from Madrid until 1898.
spanish language

The following shelves show the be of Spanish speakers in any 79 countries.
Country Population
spanish language
Spanish as a autochthonal language speakers
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
autochthonal speakers or dead solid speakers as a support language
spanish language
average be of Spanish speakers
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
 Mexico
spanish language
118,395,054
spanish language
109,752,215
spanish language
116,619,128
spanish language
 United States
spanish language
316,005,000
spanish language
38,325,155
spanish language
spanish language
82% of the latino population
spanish language
spanish language
+ 2.8 mill. non latino population
spanish language
52,000,000
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
)
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
 Colombia
spanish language
47,377,000
spanish language
46,868,624
spanish language
46,997,984
spanish language
 Spain
spanish language
47,059,533
spanish language
38,588,817
spanish language
46,494,819
spanish language
 Argentina
spanish language
41,660,417
spanish language
spanish language
39,500,000
spanish language
41,410,454
spanish language
 Venezuela
spanish language
30,405,000
spanish language
spanish language
29,306,756
spanish language
30,040,140
spanish language
 Peru
spanish language
30,475,144
spanish language
25,629,596
spanish language
spanish language
26,391,475
spanish language
 Chile
spanish language
17,556,815
spanish language
17,275,215
spanish language
17,433,917
spanish language
 Ecuador
spanish language
15,580,000
spanish language
13,200,000
spanish language
15,499,800
spanish language
 Guatemala
spanish language
15,438,384
spanish language
9,263,030
spanish language
13,338,764
spanish language
 Brazil
spanish language
201,032,714
spanish language
460,018
spanish language
460,018
spanish language
12,460,018
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
 Cuba
spanish language
11,266,000
spanish language
11,266,000
spanish language
11,198,404
spanish language
 Dominican Republic
spanish language
10,404,000
spanish language
9,300,000
spanish language
10,362,384
spanish language
 Bolivia
spanish language
10,426,154
spanish language
6,047,169
spanish language
9,164,589
spanish language
 Honduras
spanish language
8,215,313
spanish language
8,007,563
spanish language
8,133,160
spanish language
 France
spanish language
65,635,000
spanish language
477,564
spanish language
of 47,756,439
spanish language
) 1,910,258
spanish language
of 47,756,439
spanish language
) 6,685,901
spanish language
of 47,756,439
spanish language
)  El Salvador
spanish language
6,183,002
spanish language
6,168,902
spanish language
6,164,453
spanish language
 Nicaragua
spanish language
6,042,000
spanish language
5,551,876
spanish language
5,860,740
spanish language
 Italy
spanish language
59,685,227
spanish language
1,037,248
spanish language
of 51,862,391
spanish language
) 5,704,863
spanish language
of 51,862,391
spanish language
)  Paraguay
spanish language
6,802,000
spanish language
3,877,140
spanish language
4,727,390
spanish language
 Costa Rica
spanish language
4,667,096
spanish language
4,581,678
spanish language
4,629,759
spanish language
 Puerto Rico
spanish language
3,667,084
spanish language
3,487,397
spanish language
3,623,079
spanish language
 Panama
spanish language
3,864,000
spanish language
3,362,957
spanish language
3,597,384
spanish language
 Morocco
spanish language
31,759,997
spanish language
6,586
spanish language
6,586 3,415,000
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
 United Kingdom
spanish language
63,181,775
spanish language
518,480
spanish language
of 51,848,010
spanish language
) 3,110,880
spanish language
of 51,848,010
spanish language
)  Uruguay
spanish language
3,286,314
spanish language
3,136,114
spanish language
3,250,165
spanish language
 Philippines
spanish language
97,866,000
spanish language
3,325
spanish language
438,882
spanish language
3,016,773
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
 Germany
spanish language
80,327,900
spanish language
644,091
spanish language
of 64,409,146
spanish language
) 2,576,366
spanish language
of 64,409,146
spanish language
)  Equatorial Guinea
spanish language
1,622,000
spanish language
1,683
spanish language
918,000
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
 Canada
spanish language
34,605,346
spanish language
439,000
spanish language
909,000
spanish language
spanish language
1,001,853
spanish language
 Romania
spanish language
21,355,849
spanish language
182,467
spanish language
of 18,246,731
spanish language
) 912,337
spanish language
of 18,246,731
spanish language
)  Portugal
spanish language
10,636,888
spanish language
323,237
spanish language
of 8,080,915
spanish language
) 808,091
spanish language
of 8,080,915
spanish language
)  Netherlands
spanish language
16,665,900
spanish language
133,719
spanish language
of 13,371,980
spanish language
) 668,599
spanish language
of 13,371,980
spanish language
)  Sweden
spanish language
9,555,893
spanish language
77,912
spanish language
of 7,791,240
spanish language
) 77,912 467,474
spanish language
of 7,791,240
spanish language
)  Australia
spanish language
21,507,717
spanish language
111,400
spanish language
111,400 447,175
spanish language
 Belgium
spanish language
10,918,405
spanish language
89,395
spanish language
of 8,939,546
spanish language
) 446,977
spanish language
of 8,939,546
spanish language
)  Poland
spanish language
38,092,000 324,137
spanish language
of 32,413,735
spanish language
) 324,137  Austria
spanish language
8,205,533 70,098
spanish language
of 7,009,827
spanish language
) 280,393
spanish language
of 7,009,827
spanish language
)  Ivory Coast
spanish language
20,179,602 235,806
spanish language
 Algeria
spanish language
33,769,669 223,422
spanish language
 Belize
spanish language
333,200
spanish language
173,597
spanish language
173,597
spanish language
195,597
spanish language
spanish language
 Denmark
spanish language
5,484,723 45,613
spanish language
of 4,561,264
spanish language
) 182,450
spanish language
of 4,561,264
spanish language
)  Israel
spanish language
7,112,359 130,000
spanish language
175,231
spanish language
 Japan
spanish language
127,288,419 167,514
spanish language
 Ireland
spanish language
4,581,269
spanish language
35,220
spanish language
of 3,522,000
spanish language
) 140,880
spanish language
of 3,522,000
spanish language
)   Switzerland
spanish language
7,581,520 86,000
spanish language
spanish language
111,000
spanish language
111,000
spanish language
 Finland
spanish language
5,244,749 133,200
spanish language
of 4,440,004
spanish language
)  Bulgaria
spanish language
7,262,675 130,750
spanish language
of 6,537,510
spanish language
) 130,750
spanish language
of 6,537,510
spanish language
)  Netherlands Antilles
spanish language
223,652 10,699
spanish language
10,699
spanish language
125,534
spanish language
 Senegal
spanish language
12,853,259 101,455
spanish language
 Czech Republic
spanish language
10,513,209
spanish language
90,124
spanish language
of 9,012,443
spanish language
)  Hungary
spanish language
9,957,731
spanish language
83,206
spanish language
of 8,320,614
spanish language
)  Aruba
spanish language
101,484
spanish language
6,800
spanish language
6,800
spanish language
75,402
spanish language
 Trinidad and Tobago
spanish language
1,317,714
spanish language
4,100
spanish language
4,100
spanish language
65,886
spanish language
spanish language
 Cameroon
spanish language
21,599,100
spanish language
63,560
spanish language
 Andorra
spanish language
84,484 33,305
spanish language
33,305
spanish language
54,909
spanish language
 Slovenia
spanish language
35,194
spanish language
of 1,759,701
spanish language
) 52,791
spanish language
of 1,759,701
spanish language
)  Slovakia
spanish language
5,455,407 1%
spanish language
of 4,549,955
spanish language
 Norway
spanish language
4,644,457 12,573
spanish language
36,250
spanish language
 China
spanish language
1,339,724,852
spanish language
30,000
spanish language
 Gibraltar
spanish language
29,441
spanish language
22,758
spanish language
)  Lithuania
spanish language
2,972,949
spanish language
1%
spanish language
of 2,829,740
spanish language
 Luxembourg
spanish language
524,853 1%
spanish language
of 47,756,439
spanish language
2%
spanish language
of 404,907
spanish language
6%
spanish language
of 404,907
spanish language
 Russia
spanish language
143,400,000
spanish language
3,320
spanish language
3,320
spanish language
23,320
spanish language
 Western Sahara
spanish language
513,000
spanish language
n.a.
spanish language
22,000
spanish language
 New Zealand
spanish language
21,645
spanish language
21,645 47,322
spanish language
 Guam
spanish language
19,092
spanish language
spanish language
US recent Islands
spanish language
16,788
spanish language
16,788
spanish language
16,788
spanish language
 Latvia
spanish language
2,209,000
spanish language
1%
spanish language
of 1,447,866
spanish language
 Turkey
spanish language
73,722,988
spanish language
1,134
spanish language
1,134
spanish language
13,480
spanish language
spanish language
 Cyprus
spanish language
2%
spanish language
of 660,400
spanish language
 India
spanish language
1,210,193,422
spanish language
9,750
spanish language
 Estonia
spanish language
1%
spanish language
of 945,733
spanish language
 Jamaica
spanish language
2,711,476
spanish language
8,000
spanish language
8,000
spanish language
8,000
spanish language
 Namibia
spanish language
3,870
spanish language
 Egypt
spanish language
3,500
spanish language
 Malta
spanish language
1%
spanish language
of 335,476
spanish language
 European Union
spanish language
460,624,488
spanish language
2,397,000
spanish language
average 7,103,788,000
spanish language
435,814,651
spanish language
spanish language
475,385,209
spanish language
525,705,371
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
Dialectal variation
spanish language
spanish language
A multinational map behave to distinguish the important dialects of Spanish. important article: Spanish dialects and varieties
spanish language

The variety with the most speakers is Mexican Spanish
spanish language
. It is oral by more than than eight percent of the world's Spanish speakers . One of its important have is the reduction
spanish language
or loss of unstressed vowels
spanish language
, principally when they are in motion with the peering /s/.
spanish language
spanish language

cardinal of the important phonologic divisions are basing severally on the phoneme /θ/ , the phoneme /ʎ/ ,
spanish language
and the "debuccalization
spanish language
" of syllable-final /s/. The phoneme /θ/ —a voiceless dental fricative
spanish language
as in English thing—is maintain in union and principal Spain, but is compound with the sibilant
spanish language
/s/ in confederate Spain, the golden Islands, and all of Latin-American Spanish.
spanish language

The main grammatic variations betwixt dialects of Spanish refer differs uses of pronouns: particularly those of the support person
spanish language
and, to a lesser extent, the object pronouns
spanish language
of the ordinal person
spanish language
.
Voseo important article: Voseo
spanish language
spanish language
This separate necessitate cumulative citations for verification
spanish language
. pleased encouraging improve this article
spanish language
by adding citations to certain sources
spanish language
. Unsourced mercenary may be dispute and removed.
spanish language
spanish language
An examination of the dominance and underlines of the voseo dialect in Latin America. Data perform as instance by the Association of spanish language Academies
spanish language
. The dark the area, the beardown its dominance.
In voseo, vos is the subject
spanish language
perform and the perform for the except of a preposition
spanish language
, while the operating and mediate object
spanish language
forms, and the possessives
spanish language
, are the aforesaid as those think with tú: Vos sabés que tus amigos te respetan . cumulative examples: "Vos te acostaste con el tuerto" ; "Lugar que odio como te odio a vos" ; "No cerrés tus ojos" .
In Chilean voseo on the variant hand, active all verb manufactured are antithetic from their modular tú-forms.
Chilean voseo Indicative Subjunctive urgent show then qualified show then pensái pensabai pensaríai pensís pensarai piensa volvís volvíai volveríai volvái volvierai vuelve dormís dormíai dormiríai durmái durmierai duerme The forms in audacious coincide with standard tú-conjugation.
Although vos is not used in Spain, it occurring in many Spanish-speaking regions of the Americas as the primary spoken form of the second-person singular familiar pronoun, although with widest differences in societal consideration. Generally, it can be express that at that place are zoned of exclusive use of tuteo in the following areas: active all of Mexico
spanish language
, the westbound Indies, Panama
spanish language
, most of Peru
spanish language
and Venezuela
spanish language
, coastal Ecuador
spanish language
and the Caribbean glide of Colombia
spanish language
.
Tuteo exists as the second-person usage with an bargain degree of formality aboard the more than acquainted voseo in Chile
spanish language
, in the Venezuelan note of Zulia
spanish language
, on the Caribbean glide of Colombia
spanish language
, in the Azuero Peninsula
spanish language
in Panama, in the Mexican note of Chiapas
spanish language
, and in move of Guatemala.
Ustedes work as ceremonial and casual support person plural in finished 90% of the Spanish-speaking world, include all of Latin America, the Canary Islands
spanish language
, and any regions of Andalusia
spanish language
. In Seville
spanish language
, Cadiz
spanish language
, and variant move of occidental Andalusia
spanish language
, the acquainted perform is forms as ustedes vais, use the customary second-person plural perform of the verb. Most of Spain maintain the formal/familiar distinction
spanish language
with ustedes and vosotros respectively.
Usted
In principal America, especially in Honduras, usted is frequently employed as a formal pronoun to meant see betwixt the members of a romanticist couple. Usted is also employed in this way, as well as betwixt parents and children, in the Andean regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela.
Third-person except pronouns
Deviations from this norm are label "leísmo
spanish language
", "loísmo
spanish language
", or "laísmo
spanish language
", match to which idiosyncratic pronoun—le, lo, or la—has grow beyond the etymological usage .
Vocabulary
The everyday Spanish words coger , pisar and concha are considered extremely rude in move of Latin America, where the meaning of coger and pisar is also "to keep sex" and concha means "vulva". The Puerto Rican word for "bobby pin" is an obscenity in Mexico, but in Nicaragua
spanish language
it merely convey "stingy", and in Spain think of to a chef
spanish language
's helper. variant examples includes taco
spanish language
, which convey "swearword" in Spain, "traffic jam" in Chile and "heels" in Argentina and Peru but is characterized to the be of the multinational as a Mexican dish.
Spanish is intimately think to the variant Iberian act languages
spanish language
: Asturian
spanish language
, Aragonese
spanish language
, Catalan
spanish language
, Galician
spanish language
, Ladino
spanish language
, Leonese
spanish language
, Mirandese
spanish language
and Portuguese
spanish language
.
At present, the lexical similarity
spanish language
with Italian is reason at 82%.
spanish language
The lexical similarity with Portuguese
spanish language
is ample at 89%. Mutual intelligibility
spanish language
betwixt Spanish and French
spanish language
or Romanian
spanish language
is move :
spanish language
comprehension of Spanish by French speakers who keep not investigates the language is low at an estimated 45%—the aforesaid as English. The communal features of the writing systems of the Romance languages allowance for a greater amount of interlingual reading comprehension than spoken communication would.
Latin
spanish language
Spanish Galician
spanish language
Portuguese
spanish language
Astur-Leonese
spanish language
Aragonese
spanish language
Catalan
spanish language
French
spanish language
Italian
spanish language
Romanian
spanish language
English
spanish language
nos nosotros nós1 nós1 nós, nosotros nusatros nosaltres nous2 noi3 noi 'we' frater germanum hermano irmán irmão hermanu chirmán germà 4 frère fratello frate 'brother' dies martis  feria tertia  martes martes/terza feira terça-feira martes martes dimarts mardi martedì marţi 'Tuesday' cantiō canticum canción canción/cançom5 canção canción canta cançó chanson canzone cântec 'song' magis plus más máis mais más más més plus più mai/plus 'more' manum sinistram mano izquierda6 man esquerda6 mão esquerda6 manu izquierda6 man cucha mà esquerra6 main gauche mano sinistra mâna stângă 'left hand' nihil nullam rem natam nada nada nada nada cosa res rien/nul niente/nulla nimic/nul 'nothing' cāseus formaticus queso queixo queijo quesu queso formatge fromage formaggio caș7 'cheese'
Judaeo-Spanish ,
spanish language
which is essentially mediaeval Spanish and nearer to contemporary Spanish than any variant language, is oral by many descendants of the Sephardi Jews
spanish language
who be expelled from Spain in the fourth century
spanish language
.
spanish language
Therefore, its relationship to Spanish is comparable with with that of the Yiddish language
spanish language
to German
spanish language
. Ladino speakers are presently active solely Sephardi
spanish language
Jews, with family grow in Turkey, Greece or the Balkans; truest speakers largely bachelor in Israel and Turkey, and the connects States, with a few pockets in Latin America.
spanish language
It lack the Native American vocabulary
spanish language
which was authoritative during the Spanish colonial period
spanish language
, and it retains galore old keep which keep since appeared losing in modular Spanish. It contains, however, other vocabulary which is not open in modular Spanish, including vocabulary from Hebrew
spanish language
, French, grecian and Turkish
spanish language
, and variant languages oral where the Sephardim settled.
A think dialect is Haketia
spanish language
, the Judaeo-Spanish of union Morocco. This too been to larn with contemporary Spanish, during the Spanish occupation of the region.
Create verbally system important article: Spanish orthography
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
The important scratch of Don Quixote
spanish language
, a know take in Spanish literature
spanish language
. Overview Pronunciation
spanish language
History
spanish language
Orthography
spanish language
Braille
spanish language
Varieties
spanish language
Names computerized to the spanish language
spanish language
Grammar
spanish language
Determiners
spanish language
Nouns
spanish language
Pronouns
spanish language
Adjectives
spanish language
Prepositions
spanish language
Verbs
spanish language
conjugation
spanish language
irregular verbs
spanish language
v
spanish language
t
spanish language
e
spanish language

Thus, the Spanish alphabet has the following 27 receive and 2 digraphs:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, Ñ, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z.
spanish language
Ch,
spanish language
Ll.
spanish language

With the exclusion of a dead atomic be of regional label untold as México
spanish language
, pronunciation can be exclusively price from spelling. alto the orthographic conventions, a emblematic Spanish vent is word on the syllable
spanish language
earlier the decide if it ends with a vowel or with a vowel followed by 〈n〉 or an 〈s〉; it is stressed on the decide syllable otherwise. Exceptions to this rule are express by setting an acute accent
spanish language
on the stressed vowel
spanish language
.
The interrogative pronouns besides earn word in direct or indirect questions, and any demonstratives can be accented when used as pronouns. word attach used to be omitted in capital letters , although the Real Academia Española advises against this and the orthographic conventions inform at schools enforce the use of the accent.
Interrogative and forceful clauses are announcing with inverted questioned and exclamation marks
spanish language
.
Organizations Royal Spanish Academy
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
Students of Spanish in the Ruta Ñ
spanish language
.
spanish language
spanish language
The Royal Spanish Academy
spanish language
give in Madrid
spanish language
, Spain
spanish language
.
The Association of Spanish Language Academies is the entity which change the spanish language. It comprises the academies of 22 countries, serial by go out of Academy foundation: Spain
spanish language
,
spanish language
Colombia
spanish language
,
spanish language
Ecuador
spanish language
,
spanish language
Mexico
spanish language
,
spanish language
El Salvador
spanish language
,
spanish language
Venezuela
spanish language
,
spanish language
Chile
spanish language
,
spanish language
Peru
spanish language
,
spanish language
Guatemala
spanish language
,
spanish language
Costa Rica
spanish language
,
spanish language
Philippines
spanish language
,
spanish language
Panama
spanish language
,
spanish language
Cuba
spanish language
,
spanish language
Paraguay
spanish language
,
spanish language
Dominican Republic
spanish language
,
spanish language
Bolivia
spanish language
,
spanish language
Nicaragua
spanish language
,
spanish language
Argentina
spanish language
,
spanish language
Uruguay
spanish language
,
spanish language
Honduras
spanish language
,
spanish language
Puerto Rico
spanish language
,
spanish language
and United States
spanish language
.
spanish language

Instituto Cervantes
spanish language
spanish language
Cervantes Institute
spanish language
headquarters, Madrid
spanish language

Spanish is recognise as one of the authoritative languages of the United Nations
spanish language
, the European Union
spanish language
, the multinational marketing Organisation, the Organization of American States
spanish language
, the Organization of Ibero-American States
spanish language
, the African Union
spanish language
, the Union of southbound American Nations
spanish language
, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat
spanish language
, the Latin Union
spanish language
, the Caricom
spanish language
and the North American liberate marketing Agreement
spanish language
.
See besides List of Spanish-language poets
spanish language
Spanish profanity
spanish language
Spanish proverbs
spanish language
Certificate of Use of Language in Spanish
spanish language
Fundéu BBVA
spanish language
Spanish-speaking multinational Countries where Spanish is an authoritative language
spanish language
Hispanic culture
spanish language
Hispanidad
spanish language
Panhispanism
spanish language
Spanish as a support Language
spanish language
Influences on the spanish language
spanish language
Arabic manipulate on the spanish language
spanish language
List of Spanish express of teutonic origin
spanish language
List of Spanish express of Nahuatl origin
spanish language
List of Spanish express of autochthonal American Indian origin
spanish language
List of Spanish express of filipino origin
spanish language
Dialects and languages affect by Spanish Caló
spanish language
Chavacano
spanish language
Frespañol
spanish language
Ladino
spanish language
Llanito
spanish language
Palenquero
spanish language
Papiamento
spanish language
Chamorro
spanish language
Philippine languages
spanish language
Portuñol
spanish language
Spanglish
spanish language
Spanish-based creole languages
spanish language
List of English express of Spanish origin
spanish language
Spanish dialects and varieties
spanish language
European Spanish Peninsular Spanish
spanish language
Andalusian Spanish
spanish language
Castilian Spanish
spanish language
Castrapo
spanish language
Castúo
spanish language
Murcian Spanish
spanish language
Insular Spanish Canarian Spanish
spanish language
Spanish in the Americas
spanish language
North American Spanish
spanish language
Central American Spanish
spanish language
Caribbean Spanish
spanish language
South American Spanish
spanish language
Spanish in the connects States
spanish language
Spanish in Africa Equatoguinean Spanish
spanish language
Spanish in Asia Spanish in the Philippines
spanish language
spanish language
spanish language
Argentina portal
spanish language
spanish language
Bolivia portal
spanish language
spanish language
Chile portal
spanish language
spanish language
Colombia portal
spanish language
spanish language
Cuba portal
spanish language
spanish language
Dominican Republic portal
spanish language
spanish language
Ecuador portal
spanish language
spanish language
El Salvador portal
spanish language
spanish language
Mexico portal
spanish language
spanish language
Nicaragua portal
spanish language
spanish language
Panama portal
spanish language
spanish language
Puerto Rico portal
spanish language
spanish language
Peru portal
spanish language
spanish language
Spain portal
spanish language
spanish language
United express portal
spanish language
spanish language
Uruguay portal
spanish language
spanish language
Venezuela portal
spanish language
spanish language
Language portal
spanish language
References ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
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spanish language
"Världens 100 största språk 2010" The World's 100 ample Languages in 2010: www.ne.se
spanish language
^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
d
spanish language
e
spanish language
f
spanish language
"Spa"
spanish language
, Ethnologue , "(410 cardinal as a archetypal language, 470 cardinal as a archetypal and support language" . ^
spanish language
answer that in English, "Castilian" or "Castilian Spanish" may be understand as think of to European Spanish
spanish language
to the exclusion of dialects in the New multinational or to Castilian Spanish
spanish language
to the exclusion of any variant dialect, instead than as a synonym for the intact language. ^
spanish language
Instituto Cervantes
spanish language
^
spanish language
La RAE avala que Burgos acoge las primeras palabras escritas en castellano
spanish language
, ES: El mundo, 2010-11-07  ^
spanish language
Dworkin, Steven N. . A History of the Spanish Lexicon: A lingual Perspective
spanish language
. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 83. ISBN
spanish language
 0199541140
spanish language
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spanish language
"spanish languages "Becoming the language for trade" in Spain and"
spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
Wright, Amaranta . "Do you covenant Spanish?"
spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
"Diccionario de la lengua española"
spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
Penny, Ralph . A History Of The spanish language . Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–21.  ^
spanish language
"Concise Oxford companies to the English Language"
spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
"Harold discipline on Don Quixote, the archetypal contemporary archetypal | schedule | The Guardian"
spanish language
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spanish language
"spanish language Facts"
spanish language
. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
spanish language
Crow, John A. . Spain: the branch and the flower
spanish language
. University of California Press. p. 151. ISBN
spanish language
 978-0-520-24496-2
spanish language
^
spanish language
Thomas, Hugh . Rivers of Gold: the tower of the Spanish empire, from Columbus to Magellan
spanish language
. haphazard home Inc. p. 78. ISBN
spanish language
 978-0-8129-7055-5
spanish language
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spanish language
La lengua de Cervantes
spanish language
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spanish language
Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté ^
spanish language
"Se da de forma espontánea en hablantes valencianos o mallorquines y en los de algunas zonas del sur de Cataluña". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. 1st Ed. . Grapheme v
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. ^
spanish language
Cressey ^
spanish language
Abercrombie ^
spanish language
John B. Dabor, Spanish Pronunciation: Theory and practise , Ch. 7 ^
spanish language
"John B. Dalbor's express show to escort ''Spanish Pronunciation''"
spanish language
. Auburn.edu. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
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spanish language
"Instituto Cervantes 06-07"
spanish language
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spanish language
"Most widely oral Languages in the World"
spanish language
. Nations Online. Retrieved 2009-08-27.  ^
spanish language
"CIA The multinational Factbook connects States"
spanish language
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spanish language
"Internet multinational Users by Language"
spanish language
. Miniwatts marketed Group. 2008.  ^
spanish language
"CIA multinational Factbook — Gibraltar"
spanish language
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spanish language
"Background Note: Andorra"
spanish language
. U.S. Department of State: Bureau of European and eurasiatic Affairs. January 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-20.  summarized use objects parameters ^
spanish language
"BBC Education — Languages Across Europe — Spanish"
spanish language
. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
"Switzerland's cardinal federal Languages"
spanish language
. all-about-switzerland.info. collect from the original
spanish language
on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2007-09-19.  ^
spanish language
"Paraguay"
spanish language
, Ethnologue, 2000 . Guaraní is besides the most-spoken language in Paraguay by its autochthonal speakers. ^
spanish language
"Puerto Rico Delegate English"
spanish language
. the New York Times. 29 January 1993. Retrieved 2007-10-06.  ^
spanish language
"Population Census, bones Findings"
spanish language
. Belize: principal Statistical Office, Ministry of reason Management. 2000. collect from the original
spanish language
on 2007-06-21. Retrieved 2007-12-20.  ^
spanish language
"Belize Population and house censuses 2000"
spanish language
. CR: UCR. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^
spanish language
"Belize"
spanish language
. multinational Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"FAQ"
spanish language
. The Secretariat for The Implementation of Spanish. Trinidad and Tobago: Government of the Republic. collect from the original
spanish language
on 2010-11-03. Retrieved 2012-01-10.  ^
spanish language
"Spanish change state support language in Brazil"
spanish language
. Mercopress. 2005-07-08. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
spanish language
Lipski, John M . "Too closing for comfort? the genesis of "portuñol/portunhol""
spanish language
. In Face, Timothy L; Klee, sang A. decide Proceedings of the 8th latino Linguistics Symposium : 1–22. Retrieved 2008-12-29.  ^
spanish language
U.S. censuses Bureau
spanish language
latino or hispanic by special origin. ^
spanish language
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spanish language
. "United States. S1601. Language oral at Home"
spanish language
. 2005-2007 American Community polled 3-Year Estimates. Retrieved September 3, 2009.  ^
spanish language
"Más 'speak spanish' que en España"
spanish language
. Retrieved October 6, 2007.  ^
spanish language
Crawford, John . Language loyalties: a obtain schedule on the authoritative English controversy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 62.  ^
spanish language
"Equatorial Guinea "
spanish language
. Ethnologue. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^
spanish language
"CIA multinational Factbook - tropical Guinea"
spanish language
. CIA. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
Quienes somos
spanish language
, Sahrawi iron Service  ^
spanish language
Sahrawi Arab antiauthoritarian Republic TV
spanish language
  ^
spanish language
Western Sahara: Poetry and Spanish — The abiding Links
spanish language
, international express online, 2008-07-14  ^
spanish language
"El Instituto Cervantes sigue ignorando a los saharauis"
spanish language
, Hazlo que debas , Google, October 2007  summarized use objects parameters ^
spanish language
Generación de la Amistad saharaui
spanish language
, Google  ^
spanish language
The Languages of Morocco
spanish language
, Morocco.com  ^
spanish language
Los cubanos, la élite de Sudán del Sur
spanish language
, FR: covenant France International, 2011-07-06, retrieved 20 December 2011  ^
spanish language
"Estadisticas: El idioma español en Filipinas"
spanish language
. ES: Busco enlaces. 2000-11-15. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
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spanish language
, Ambeth
spanish language
. "The loss of Spanish"
spanish language
. Makati City, Philippines: filipino cyclic Inquirer . Opinion. collect from the original
spanish language
on July 26, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2010.  ^
spanish language
http://www.chanrobles.com/presidentialdecrees/presidentialdecreeno155.html
spanish language
^
spanish language
oblige XIV, Sec 7: For purposes of communication and instruction, the official languages of the Philippines are philippine and, until otherwise provided by law, English. The regional languages are the subsidiary official languages in the regions and shall serve as subsidiary media of instruction therein. Spanish and Arabic shall be improved on a willful and optional basis. ^
spanish language
Legaspi, Amita O. . "PNoy and Spain’s further Sofia accept travel of spanish language in filipino schools"
spanish language
. GMA News.  ^
spanish language
Medium projection
spanish language
, PH: federal Statistics Office, Mid-2010  screens go out determine in: |date= ^
spanish language
Spanish creole: Quilis, Antonio , La lengua española en Filipinas
spanish language
, Cervantes virtual, p. 54 and 55  ^
spanish language
Rubino ^
spanish language
1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines
spanish language
, The corpus juris, oblige XV, separate 3, retrieved 2008-04-06  ^
spanish language
Engelberg, Stefan. "The manipulate of German on the Lexicon of Palauan and Kosraean "
spanish language
. Retrieved 23 August 2012.  ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
d
spanish language
e
spanish language
f
spanish language
g
spanish language
"2013 estimate"
spanish language
. UN. 1950-2100.  screens go out determine in: |date= average population by bones area, region and country, yearly for 1950-2100 . ^
spanish language
schedule of the year, Britannica, 2003—9  screens go out determine in: |date= ^
spanish language
es:Anexo:Hablantes de español como lengua materna en el 2003
spanish language
. ^
spanish language
Ethnologue   ^
spanish language
Joshua Project, 2000  ^
spanish language
People's List, US: Census Bureau . ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
Eurobarometer
spanish language
, EU: Page TS2: Population elderly than 15 years old of all country. page T74: Speakers who covenant Spanish very well. Page T46: Speakers who covenant well sufficient in order to be able to keep a conversation. es:Anexo:Hablantes de español en la U.E. según el Eurobarómetro
spanish language
, 2012  ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
d
spanish language
e
spanish language
f
spanish language
g
spanish language
Spanish students for countries out of Europe match to "Cifras"
spanish language
, Anuario , ES: Instituto Cervantes  . ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
d
spanish language
e
spanish language
f
spanish language
g
spanish language
h
spanish language
i
spanish language
j
spanish language
k
spanish language
l
spanish language
m
spanish language
n
spanish language
o
spanish language
p
spanish language
q
spanish language
r
spanish language
s
spanish language
t
spanish language
u
spanish language
v
spanish language
w
spanish language
Demografía de la lengua española
spanish language
, ES, p. 28 , to countries with authoritative Spanish status. ^
spanish language
2013 population estimate
spanish language
, MX: CONAPO estimate  ^
spanish language
"MX"
spanish language
, The multinational Factbook, USA: CIA : Spanish single 92.7% ^
spanish language
Population clock
spanish language
, US: censuses Bureau  ^
spanish language
Spanish speakers elderly than 5 years old ^
spanish language
http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_12_1YR_GCT1602.US01PR&prodType=table
spanish language
^
spanish language
pewhispanic.org
spanish language
^
spanish language
Census Bureau
spanish language
^
spanish language
pewresearch.org
spanish language
^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
d
spanish language
e
spanish language
f
spanish language
g
spanish language
h
spanish language
i
spanish language
j
spanish language
k
spanish language
l
spanish language
m
spanish language
n
spanish language
o
spanish language
p
spanish language
q
spanish language
r
spanish language
s
spanish language
t
spanish language
u
spanish language
v
spanish language
w
spanish language
x
spanish language
y
spanish language
z
spanish language
aa
spanish language
ab
spanish language
ac
spanish language
ad
spanish language
ae
spanish language
af
spanish language
ag
spanish language
ah
spanish language
ai
spanish language
aj
spanish language
ak
spanish language
El español en el mundo
spanish language
, ES
spanish language
: Instituto Cervantes, 2012, p. 6  ^
spanish language
Instituto Cervantes
spanish language
^
spanish language
In addition, at that place are 7.8 cardinal Spanish students in USA, many of them are not Hispanics. Finally, at that place are 9 cardinal amerciable Hispanics in USA, any of them aren't in the censuses , Impre, 2009-04-19 ). ^
spanish language
Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española
spanish language
, El castellano  ^
spanish language
Ansón, José Ma, José Ma. Ansón: "Casi cincuenta millones" hablan español en EE. UU.
spanish language
, El Castellano  ^
spanish language
"La amenaza al idioma español - Voces de Univision"
spanish language
. Univision.com. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
Rodríguez Barilari, Elbio, Congresos de la lengua
spanish language
, ES  ^
spanish language
Más de 70 expertos participaran en la III Acta Internacional de la Lengua Española
spanish language
, ES: ABC de Sevilla, 2008-03-29  ^
spanish language
CNN en español structure its programming
spanish language
, The New York Times, 2011-03-13  . ^
spanish language
"Reloj animado"
spanish language
. CO: DANE. Retrieved 2010-09-01.  ^
spanish language
At that place are 508,376 speakers of American Indian languages ^
spanish language
"Datos básicos"
spanish language
. ES: INE. 2001-05-28. Retrieved 2013-01-01.  ^
spanish language
82.0% covenant Spanish as a archetypal language , Europa, 2012 ) ^
spanish language
Argentinian censuses INDEC calculate for 2013
spanish language
^
spanish language
40,872,286 populate is the censuses population prove for 2010 Censo
spanish language
, AR: INDEC, 2010  ^
spanish language
Ethnologue. "Argentina"
spanish language
. Ethnologue. Retrieved 2013-06-14.  ^
spanish language
"INE: población de Venezuela es 28 946 101 habitantes"
spanish language
, Diario de Caracas , "from a exploratory major prove of the censuses for 2011" .) ^
spanish language
"Languages"
spanish language
, VE, Ethnologue, "There are 1,098,244 populate who covenant variant language as their mothers vie " . ^
spanish language
Quispe Fernández, Ezio . "Cifras"
spanish language
. PE
spanish language
: INEI. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^
spanish language
"Census"
spanish language
, The multinational factbook, US
spanish language
: CIA, 2007, "Spanish 84.1%, Quechua 13%, Aymara 1.7%, Ashaninka 0.3%, variant autochthonal languages 0.7%, variant 0.2%" . ^
spanish language
"PE"
spanish language
, Country, Ethnologue, "There are 5,782,260 populate who covenant variant language as mothers vie 4,773,900, Aymara 661 000, taiwanese 100,000)." . ^
spanish language
"Informes"
spanish language
. Proyecciones . CL
spanish language
: INE. 2013. p. 36. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^
spanish language
"CL"
spanish language
, Country, Ethnologue, "There are 281,600 populate who covenant different language, principally Mapudungun " . ^
spanish language
"Estimate"
spanish language
, Census, EC
spanish language
: INEC . ^
spanish language
Ethnologue
spanish language
^
spanish language
"GT"
spanish language
, The multinational factbook, CIA, "Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40%" . ^
spanish language
IBGE divulga as estimativas populacionais dos municípios em 2 011
spanish language
, BR, 2013  ^
spanish language
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, president of Brazil: happen 9 cardinal students are larn Spanish and the forecasting is 12 cardinal in 2010
spanish language
, CO
spanish language
: OEI . ^
spanish language
Español en Brasil
spanish language
, ES: Instituto Cervantes, "More than 1 cardinal of Spanish students in the private educate and active 11 cardinal reason for 2010 in the in the public eye school" . ^
spanish language
"Cuba"
spanish language
. Country . Ethnologue. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
Ethnologue
spanish language
^
spanish language
""
spanish language
. INE. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^
spanish language
match to the 1992 Census, 58 per cent of the population network Spanish as its mothers tongue. unicef.org
spanish language
^
spanish language
"INE "
spanish language
. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
At that place are 207,750 populate who covenant different language, principally Garifuna .: Ethnologue
spanish language
^
spanish language
"INSEE calculate to 1/11/2012"
spanish language
. Insee.fr. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
Eurobarometr 2012
spanish language
: Native speakers. ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
d
spanish language
e
spanish language
f
spanish language
g
spanish language
h
spanish language
i
spanish language
j
spanish language
k
spanish language
l
spanish language
m
spanish language
n
spanish language
o
spanish language
p
spanish language
q
spanish language
r
spanish language
s
spanish language
t
spanish language
u
spanish language
v
spanish language
w
spanish language
x
spanish language
y
spanish language
z
spanish language
aa
spanish language
ab
spanish language
ac
spanish language
ad
spanish language
ae
spanish language
af
spanish language
ag
spanish language
ah
spanish language
ai
spanish language
aj
spanish language
ak
spanish language
al
spanish language
am
spanish language
an
spanish language
ao
spanish language
ap
spanish language
Eurobarometr 2012
spanish language
: Population older than 15. ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
d
spanish language
e
spanish language
f
spanish language
g
spanish language
h
spanish language
i
spanish language
j
spanish language
k
spanish language
l
spanish language
m
spanish language
n
spanish language
o
spanish language
Eurobarometr 2012
spanish language
: Non native people who speak Spanish very well. ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
d
spanish language
e
spanish language
f
spanish language
g
spanish language
h
spanish language
i
spanish language
j
spanish language
k
spanish language
l
spanish language
m
spanish language
n
spanish language
o
spanish language
p
spanish language
q
spanish language
r
spanish language
s
spanish language
t
spanish language
u
spanish language
v
spanish language
w
spanish language
x
spanish language
Eurobarometr 2012
spanish language
: Non autochthonal populate who covenant Spanish resurfacing sufficient in ordering to be capable to keep a conversation. ^
spanish language
Census 2010 estimation
spanish language
^
spanish language
At that place are 14,100 populate who covenant variant language as their mothers vie : Ethnologue
spanish language
. ^
spanish language
At that place are 490,124 populate who covenant different language, principally Mískito .: Ethnologue
spanish language
^
spanish language
http://www.istat.it/en/archive/94537
spanish language
^
spanish language
match to the 1992 census, 50% use any Spanish and the autochthonal language Guarani at home, 37% covenant Guarani only, 7% covenant Spanish only.findarticles.com
spanish language
. around 75 percent can covenant Spanish.pressreference.com
spanish language
^
spanish language
"Primera variación del año registró un 0,68%"
spanish language
. INEC. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
^
spanish language
"2012 US. censuses Bureau"
spanish language
^
spanish language
95.10% of the population network Spanish ^
spanish language
Census INE calculate for 2013
spanish language
^
spanish language
At that place are 501,043 populate who covenant different language as mothers tongue: PA
spanish language
, Ethnologue  ^
spanish language
"Morocco census"
spanish language
. Hcp.ma. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
El español en el contexto Sociolingüístico marroquí: Evolución y perspectivas
spanish language
: betwixt 4 and 7 cardinal populate keep Spanish knowledge ^
spanish language
realinstitutoelcano.org
spanish language
^
spanish language
"Census 2011"
spanish language
. U.K. Gov. Census. 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
"2011 Uruguayan Census"
spanish language
. 2011.  ^
spanish language
At that place are 150,200 populate who covenant different language as mothers tongue, UY
spanish language
, Ethnologue  ^
spanish language
Medium projection
spanish language
, PH: federal Statistics Office, Mid-2010  screens go out determine in: |date= ^
spanish language
Spanish immigrants in the multinational match to
spanish language
) ^
spanish language
realinstitutoelcano.org autochthonal knowledge speakers
spanish language
^
spanish language
1,816,773 Spanish + 1,200,000 Spanish creole: Quilis, Antonio , La lengua española en Filipinas
spanish language
, Cervantes virtual, p. 54 and 55  ^
spanish language
Ten Reasons
spanish language
, ES: Mepsyd, p. 23  ^
spanish language
Philippines
spanish language
, Spanish differences  ^
spanish language
Spanish in the multinational 2012
spanish language
: 3,017,265 Spanish speakers. 439,000 with autochthonal knowladge, 2,557,773 with manipulate knowladge , and 20,492 Spanish students . ^
spanish language
Nestor Diaz: More than than 2 cardinal Spanish speakers and approximately 3 cardinal with Chavacano speakers . "FILIPINAS / Vigoroso regreso del español"
spanish language
. Aresprensa.com. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
The rating of 2 900 000 Spanish speakers is in Thompson, RW, Pluricentric languages: differs norms in other nations
spanish language
, p. 45  ^
spanish language
World widest spanish language
spanish language
, Sispain  ^
spanish language
German census
spanish language
, DE: Destatis, 2011-12-31  ^
spanish language
"Equatorial Guinea census"
spanish language
. Population statistics. 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^
spanish language
Spanish match to INE 2011 ^
spanish language
13,7% of the population network Spanish natively and variant 74% as a support language: "Anuario"
spanish language
, CVC , ES: Cervantes, 2007–7  screens go out determine in: |date= ^
spanish language
Statcan
spanish language
, CA: GC  ^
spanish language
www12.statcan.gc.ca/census
spanish language
^
spanish language
elcorreo.ca
spanish language
^
spanish language
Eurostat
spanish language
^
spanish language
Eurostat 1/1/2010 ^
spanish language
"Netherland censuses ClockPop"
spanish language
. Cbs.nl. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
2012 census
spanish language
^
spanish language
2011 Census
spanish language
^
spanish language
"2071.0 - reflected a Nation: Stories from the 2011 Census, 2012–2013"
spanish language
. Abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-06-14.  ^
spanish language
paged 32 of the "Demografía de la lengua española"
spanish language
^
spanish language
"Eurostat calculate to 1/1/2011"
spanish language
. Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
statisticsbelize.org.bz
spanish language
^
spanish language
paged 32 of Demografía de la lengua española
spanish language
^
spanish language
label 34, 35 of the "Demografía de la lengua española", paged 35
spanish language
. ^
spanish language
spanish language
^
spanish language
"all-about-switzerland.info"
spanish language
. all-about-switzerland.info. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^
spanish language
czso.cz
spanish language
^
spanish language
ksh.hu
spanish language
^
spanish language
"Resultado 2010 - Persona"
spanish language
. Censo2010.aw. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
spanish language
^
spanish language
http://cvc.cervantes.es/lengua/anuario/anuario_06-07/pdf/paises_41.pdf
spanish language
^
spanish language
Evolution de la population par sexe de 1976 à 2012
spanish language
en: Annuaire Statistique du Cameroun 2010. Consultado el 23-08-2012. ^
spanish language
cvc.cervantes.es
spanish language
^
spanish language
"Press sacrifice on bones rating of the 2010 federal Population Census"
spanish language
. Stats.gov.cn. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
25,000 Spanish students in the university + 5,000 in the "Instituto Cervantes"cervantes.es
spanish language
^
spanish language
http://www.gibraltar.gov.gi/statistics/faqs
spanish language
^
spanish language
www.um.es
spanish language
. 77.3% of the Gibraltar population covenant Spanish with their mothers more, or corresponding than English. ^
spanish language
db1.stat.gov.lt
spanish language
^
spanish language
http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/B13_00/IssWWW.exe/Stg/dk04/8-0.htm
spanish language
^
spanish language
"2009 estimate"
spanish language
. UN. 2008. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^
spanish language
The Spanish 1970 censuses claims 16.648 Spanish speakers in occidental Sahara
spanish language
) but prospective most of them be populate born in Spain who travel aft the maroc annexation ^
spanish language
stats.govt.nz New Zealand censuses
spanish language
^
spanish language
paged 34 of the Demografía de la Lengua Española
spanish language
^
spanish language
"2010 Census"
spanish language
. Census.gov. Retrieved 2013-06-14.  ^
spanish language
"Population - Key Indicators | Latvijas statistika"
spanish language
. Csb.gov.lv. Retrieved 2013-06-14.  ^
spanish language
"::Welcome to Turkish Statistical Institute's Web Pages::"
spanish language
. TurkStat. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
8,000 + 4,346 Spanish Students ^
spanish language
http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/indiaatglance.html
spanish language
^
spanish language
cervantes.es
spanish language
^
spanish language
http://statinja.gov.jm/Demo_SocialStats/population.aspx
spanish language
^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
Languages of Jamaica
spanish language
, ^
spanish language
El español en Namibia, 2005.
spanish language
Instituto Cervantes
spanish language
. ^
spanish language
cvc.cervantes.es
spanish language
^
spanish language
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&language=en&pcode=tps00001&tableSelection=1&footnotes=yes&labeling=labels&plugin=1
spanish language
^
spanish language
Demografía de la lengua española, paged 37
spanish language
, Sweden and Luxemburg . ^
spanish language
"International slot - populate and Households - U.S. censuses Bureau"
spanish language
. Census.gov. 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2012-08-20.  ^
spanish language
Instituto Cervantes and British Council
spanish language
^
spanish language
According to an Instituto Cervantes 2013 report, at that place are 528 millon Spanish speakers, include speakers with manipulate knowledge, or students of the language: eldiae.es
spanish language
^
spanish language
"The 30 Most oral Languages in the World"
spanish language
. KryssTal. Retrieved 2013-01-16.  ^
spanish language
"500 millones de razones para drill español | Edición impresa | EL PAÍS"
spanish language
. Elpais.com. Retrieved 2013-01-16.  ^
spanish language
Eleanor communicate Cotton, John M. antithetic Spanish in the Americas, Volume 2, pp.154-155, URL
spanish language
^
spanish language
drain Blanch, Juan M. En torno a las vocales caedizas del español mexicano, pp.53 a 73, Estudios sobre el español de México, editorial Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México URL
spanish language
. ^
spanish language
haphazard home Full-length Dictionary. haphazard home Inc. 2006.  ^
spanish language
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language . Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006.  ^
spanish language
Webster's rewritten Full-length Dictionary. MICRA, Inc. 1998.  ^
spanish language
Encarta multinational English Dictionary
spanish language
. Bloomsbury perform Plc. 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-05.  ^
spanish language
Penny, Ralph . Variation and improved in Spanish. Cambridge University Press. p. 199. ISBN
spanish language
 0-521-78045-4
spanish language
. "whatever might be claimed by variant centres, untold as Valladolid, it was better varieties of Madrid Spanish that were largely on a regular basis reflects in the graphic standard.."  ^
spanish language
The IPA
spanish language
symbol "turned y" , with its "tail" tilt to the right, resembles, but is technically other from, the grecian receive lambda , whose act tilt to the left. ^
spanish language
Harris ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
"Real Academia Española"
spanish language
. Buscon.rae.es. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^
spanish language
Katia Salamanca de Abreu, review of Humberto López Morales, Estudios sobre el español de Cuba
spanish language
, in Thesaurus, 28 , 138-146. ^
spanish language
"3 Mock From Miami: Fruta Bomba"
spanish language
. Cuban-food-usa.com. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^
spanish language
"papaya"
spanish language
. Urban Dictionary. Retrieved 2010-04-21.  ^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
"Spanish"
spanish language
. ethnologue.  ^
spanish language
Often considered to be a substratum word. variant theories suggest, on the basis of what is employed to make cheese, a derivation from Latin brandeum doner an intermediate branch *brandea. For the development of the meaning, cf. Spanish manteca, lusitanian manteiga, probably from Latin mantica , Italian formaggio and French fromage from formaticus. Romanian expository Dictionary
spanish language
^ a
spanish language
b
spanish language
c
spanish language
Alfassa, Shelomo . "Ladinokomunita"
spanish language
. Foundation for the Advancement of Sephardic analyse and Culture. Retrieved 4 February 2010.  ^
spanish language
Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas
spanish language
, 1st ed. ^
spanish language
Real Academia Española
spanish language
, Explanation
spanish language
at Spanish Pronto
spanish language
, ^
spanish language
"Abecedario"
spanish language
. Diccionario panhispánico de dudas . actual Academia Española. 2005. Retrieved 2008-06-23.  ^
spanish language
Ch
spanish language
, en Diccionario de la lengua española de la actual Academia Española
spanish language
^
spanish language
Ll
spanish language
, en Diccionario de la lengua española de la actual Academia Española
spanish language
^
spanish language
"Scholarly Societies Project"
spanish language
. Lib.uwaterloo.ca. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
spanish language
Batchelor, Ronald Ernest . Using Spanish: a manipulate to modern usage
spanish language
. Cambridge University Press. p. 318. ISBN
spanish language
 0-521-26987-3
spanish language
^
spanish language
"Association of spanish language Academies"
spanish language
. Asale. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Real Academia Española"
spanish language
. Spain: RAE. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Colombiana de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Colombia. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Ecuador. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Mexicana de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Mexico. 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua"
spanish language
. El Salvador. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Venezolana de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Venezuela. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Chilena de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Chile. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Peruana de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Peru. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Guatemala. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Costarricense de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Costa Rica. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española"
spanish language
. Philippines. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Panameña de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Panama. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Cubana de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Cuba. Retrieved 2010-11-06.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española"
spanish language
. Paraguay. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Dominicana de la Lengua"
spanish language
. República Dominicana. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Boliviana de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Bolivia. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Nicaragua. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Argentina de Letras"
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. Argentina. 2010-03-25. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Nacional de Letras del Uruguay"
spanish language
. Uruguay. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Hondureña de la Lengua"
spanish language
. Honduras. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española"
spanish language
. Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
"Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española"
spanish language
. connects States. Retrieved 2011-02-05.  ^
spanish language
A archetypal Spanish Reader, by Erwin W. Roessler and Alfred Remy Bibliography Abercrombie, David . Elements of widespread Phonetics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
spanish language
.  Cressey, William Whitney . Spanish Phonology and Morphology: A Productive View. Georgetown University Press
spanish language
. ISBN
spanish language
 0878400451
spanish language
.  Eddington, David . "Spanish underlines Assignment indoors the figurative imitate of Language"
spanish language
. Language 76 : 92–109. doi
spanish language
:10.2307/417394
spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
.  Harris, crowd . "Sound improved in Spanish and the Theory of Markedness". Language 45 : 538–52. doi
spanish language
:10.2307/411438
spanish language
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spanish language
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spanish language
.  Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina . "Castilian Spanish". Journal of the world phonic Association 33 : 255–59. doi
spanish language
:10.1017/S0025100303001373
spanish language
Moreno Fernández, Francisco
spanish language
; Otero, Jaime , Atlas de la lengua española en el mundo, Barcelona: Ariel  Population by age, any sexes, annual; calculate for 2012
spanish language
, UN  Rubino, Carl , "Zamboangueño Chavacano and the Potentive Mode."
spanish language
, in Michaelis, Susanne, grow of Creole Structures: decide the Contribution of Substrates and Superstrates., Amsterdam: Benjamins, pp. 279–299  favor interpret "The tower of Spanish wearing off
spanish language
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. June 1, 2013. outermost think Spanish edition
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of
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, Languages, The BBC
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, USA: afield function Institute . Online Spanish English Translation
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, Spain: Speng . Spanish evolution from Latin
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, Mertsahinoglu . Spanish phrasebook
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on
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"Vocabulary", major Spanish online, Amauta Spanis . Size and nature of the Spanish vocabulary
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, About . Unabridged English<>Spanish Dictionary
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, Collins . Study Spanish
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